Making baker’s croissants: Capturing butter heaven

You haven’t really made friends with a croissant until you’ve met one coming out of the oven. Oh, so light, crisp on the outside, tender inside, and fragrant with ever-so-slightly toasted butter. It’s an experience that stays with you.

“But I don’t work in a bakery,” you’re thinking. “How will I ever know this moment of which you speak?”

You can make croissants yourself, that’s how. I expect some of you may shrug and decide to do your mousing around someplace else at this point. But if you’ve ever wondered how such an amazing baked good comes to be, or entertained the wish to make croissants yourself, stay with me and I’ll show you how.

First a little back story.

I spent 5 months working the overnight bakeshop shift at the New England Culinary Institute.

Class began at 10 p.m., and was done by 6 a.m., just before the bakery, La Brioche, opened. The overnight class was responsible for creating all the morning pastries for the case: croissants, Danish, muffins, cookies, quick breads, pies, rolls, and cakes. As I remember it, the time spent there was a lot like the Twilight Zone. The first 3 hours were no problem. They were spent scaling, mixing, scooping, dividing dough, proofing, running the first product through the ovens.

Somewhere around 3 a.m. was what I called “the witching hour,” where most mistakes were made, or your body and brain seemed to take a vacation from each other. Perhaps it had to do with the fact that “Mmmmmbop” was played on the radio EVERY SINGLE NIGHT at that time. Hard to say.

What brought me back from the witching hour were the croissants. Especially the ham and cheese. Never underestimate the redemptive power of melty cheese surrounded by buttery layers of pastry.

We made our croissants with the aid of the ultimate pastry power tool: it’s called a sheeter. It functions like a rolling pin on steroids. Any dough you put on one side is put under a stainless steel roller in the center, and comes out the other side thinner than it went in. It’s a very efficient way to make laminated doughs.

Huh? Isn’t laminate a kind of flooring? Laminated in this case refers to layers, and is how pastry comes to be.

The short version is this: A flour/egg/water/and-or/yeast dough is mixed and allowed to rest. Then butter is worked so that it’s plastic (flexible), mixed with some flour to stabilize it, and enclosed inside the dough.

From there, the package is rolled out and folded to create distinct layers of dough and butter. When this dough is baked, the butter layer expands and separates the dough layers, creating the ultimately flaky product we know as a croissant.

You can laminate a dough that has yeast (baker’s croissants, or croissants de boulanger) or one with no yeast (puff pastry, used for croissants de patissier). If you wanted dough to make vol au vents, or turnovers, you’d use puff pastry. If you want to make croissants or Danish, you’d use the dough I’m going to show you. The techniques are the same; the ingredients are slightly different.

Ready to go? Let’s make Baker’s Croissants.

First, we’ll put the dough together. Break 2 large eggs into a measuring cup, and add enough water to make 2 cups of liquid.

Place this in a mixing bowl or the bucket of your bread machine. Next, add 1/4 cup of sugar; if you plan to make only savory croissants, you can leave half or all of this out.

Add a scant tablespoon of salt, 2 teaspoons of instant yeast…

…and 5 1/2 cups (23 1/2 ounces or 1 pound, 7 1/2 ounces) of flour. Measure out another 1/2 cup of flour and keep it ready, in case you need to adjust the consistency of the dough. This is what recipes mean when they give you a range with flour amounts: start with the lower number, and use the rest only if you need it.

You can also add 1/2 cup of dry milk powder; mine has clumped up a bit, so I’m putting it through a strainer to break up the lumps.

This is optional, but makes the dough a bit richer. Finally, 2 tablespoons of butter, either very soft or melted and cooled. Leave the rest of a pound of butter out on the counter; you’ll be using it shortly. Mix up the dough…

…and use part or all of the additional 1/2 cup of flour to adjust the texture if the dough stays tacky after being kneaded for a few minutes.

This dough is too sticky; I’m going to adjust it with 2 to 3 tablespoons more flour from the reserved half cup I measured out in the first place.

That’s more like it. The dough is still soft, but it’s smooth and doesn’t stick when I touch it.

Sprinkle the dough with some flour, and sprinkle a little more flour into a large plastic bag. Put the dough inside it.

Pat or roll it into a square-ish shape (this will help you later). Put the bag on something flat (it’s kind of floppy), and refrigerate for 30 minutes. If you’ve used your bread machine to mix and knead the dough, take it out as soon as the kneading is done, put it in a bag, and refrigerate it.

However you’ve mixed your dough, you don’t want to give it a full first rise. The yeast will have plenty of time to grow during all the time the dough is being rolled and rested.

Next we’ll make the butter inlay. When I had a sheeter, I just pounded the butter to make it malleable, spread it into a uniform slab, and rolled it in. When I’m making croissants by hand, I add some flour to the inlay to keep it more stable; it doesn’t all melt and run out in a puddle when the finished product is baked.

Measure out another 1/2 cup of flour. Sprinkle some of it on a piece of parchment paper. Unwrap the rest of the pound of butter you’ve kept out, and put it (the butter should still be cool to the touch, but not rock hard from the fridge) on top of the flour on the paper. Sprinkle the top with some more flour and cover with plastic wrap.

Now for a little therapy. Give the butter some whacks with a pastry or rolling pin to make it flexible.

Now put it in the mixer with the remaining measured flour and set up your paddle. Mix the butter and flour at low speed, just enough to make the mixture smooth. You don’t want to beat air into the mixture.

Scrape the butter back onto the parchment and spread it into an 8” square. Make sure the corners and edges are tidy: it makes a difference, all the way through the process. Cover and chill the butter for 20 minutes, until it firms up (but not too far).

Let the fun begin! You’ll need a 24” ruler or measuring tape; flour for sprinkling; a dry pastry brush; a small bowl of water and a wet pastry brush, and a rolling pin.

Dust your work surface with flour, and put the dough on it. Pat the dough into a 12” square. Be neat. Now put the butter square in the center, turned 45 degrees, so it looks like a diamond in the square.

Take the top corners of the dough and put them in the center, pinching together the seam.

Repeat with the bottom corners so the butter is completely enclosed.

After pinching that last bit of the seam closed, sprinkle the packet with a little flour, and tap it with your rolling pin, to encourage it to elongate.

Roll the dough into a rectangle 20” long by 10” wide (the width of a standard rolling pin barrel), stopping to free the dough from the work surface periodically, sprinkling a little flour underneath if necessary. Once the dough is long enough…

…brush any excess flour off the top, and fold the bottom edge 1/3 of the way up. Line up the edges neatly.

Fold the top down.

Turn the dough packet 90 degrees, so it looks like a book you could open.

If the dough is still relaxed and flexible, repeat the steps you just took: roll out, brush off, fold in thirds.

Once that’s done, you can mark the dough with a couple of dimples that record that you’ve given it two turns.

Now it’s time to let your dough have a nap. Sprinkle it with flour and put it back in its bag. Let it rest in the refrigerator for at least half an hour, so the gluten in the dough can relax.

After the dough’s rest, give it two more turns just as you did the first time. Flip the dough over between the first and second turns to even things out.

Hint: as you’re folding the dough, be fussy about lining up the corners. Use a little water to tack them in place, if necessary, so the layers don’t slide around as you roll the dough.

Rest the dough again. A small aside here. This is one instance where more is not better. After you’ve made 4 turns, you’re going to feel pretty confident. You’re just hitting stride with this business, and you think, “if 4 is good, how many more layers will I get with 6? My croissants will be sky high!” Check this picture out. Which of these two croissants had more turns?

Answer: the one on the left had 6 turns, the one on the right only 4. For more distinct layers, better flake, and by the way, less work, 4 turns works.

By the way, the one in front needed more time in the oven than it got. See how there’s white dough at the overlap? That means there’s still raw dough inside.

I know this is a long piece, but here’s something you should know. Even when this dough isn’t perfect, it’s still mighty good.

The first batch I made for this blog was somewhat abused by circumstance. I had a number of other things demanding my time while I was trying to get it made, and as a result I alternated between pushing it (rolling it too cold) and neglecting it (leaving it out too long).

The result? Dough that looked like cellulite when I rolled it. Here’s how it looked after dividing the batch in half.

While you can see that the butter layers aren’t contiguous, and the yeast layer is a little spongy-looking, this dough still baked up pretty well. It’s the dough that I used to make the ham and cheese croissant you saw above. So even if your dough doesn’t look fashion-model perfect, don’t be discouraged.

Back to our project.

After you’ve finished your turning and folding, let the dough rest in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours. Overnight is better. You could also divide it in half and freeze half at this point.

We’ll use both halves here, so I can show you more things to do with it. You can see it’s rather poofy-looking, because the yeast has been working.

I’ll put half the dough back in the bag and refrigerate it; we’ll see it in action in a bit. Roll the remaining dough into a 12” x 18” rectangle.

Pick it up and dust the work surface with flour underneath the dough as you’re doing this; the dough should move freely over your work surface as you roll. Trim the very outside edge of the dough with a straight edge and a pizza cutter. This takes off the sealed edges of the dough that could inhibit its “poof.”

Save the scraps; we’ll play with them later. Just tuck them under some plastic for now.

Next, cut the remaining dough in thirds lengthwise and in half across the middle.

Cut each of these rectangles diagonally in half.

Put a 1/2″ notch in the center of the triangle’s short side. This will help the croissant to curve once it’s shaped. Set up all of your pieces of dough.

The idea when rolling croissants is to roll them up from the bottom, and to end up with the point of the dough neatly underneath the finished product. To ensure this, it’s a good idea to stretch them out just a bit. I use a pastry roller to tease a little more length out of the dough.

Roll the dough up like this:

Keep going…

You can put a dab of water on the tip to help it stay put when you get to the end:

All rolled up.

There are two things to notice here. The point of the dough is underneath the croissant, and the “ears,” or open points of dough at the ends, are facing up. That’s what you’re aiming for. But we’re not quite done, because this is called a croissant, not a droite. Gently curve the ends toward each other.

You could freeze the croissant at this point (I’d recommend a rigid plastic container with a lid) for up to 2 weeks. Thaw in the refrigerator overnight before egg-washing and baking.

A nice riff on plain croissants is a little cinnamon filling. On the overnight shift we sprinkled some cinnamon-sugar inside before rolling the dough; since coming to the land of Arthur, though, I’ve discovered Baker’s Cinnamon Filling. I’m putting about a teaspoon of it in this croissant before rolling it up.

You can use our pain au chocolat sticks, too.

After you’ve formed all of your croissants, put them on a parchment-lined baking sheet and refrigerate them for half an hour; this is to let the butter firm up again, so it doesn’t run right out when they’re baked.

We’re going to take the other half of the dough and fill it, too. Roll it out the same way as the first half, including trimming the edges. This time, cut the rectangle in thirds in both directions. This should give you nine 4” x 6” pieces of dough.

Take a piece of dough and turn it sideways. Place half an ounce of Swiss cheese on one end, and the same amount of ham on top of that.

Fold this end 1/3 of the way over.

Fold over again, so the curve on the right is just past the edge on the left.

Press gently down on top, to seal things together.

You can do this with other fillings, too. Spinach is good. If you look closely, you can see that I wet the left edge of the dough to help seal the seam.

Chocolate, of course, is wonderful.

This is my idea of treasure:

Refrigerate your filled croissants for 30 minutes. Or once again, you could freeze at this point; you could have a stash that dresses up your weekend breakfast for weeks!

Remember that little scrap pile? At the bakery we collected them all, then made filled coffee cakes from them, but at home there aren’t that many.

I have a little cinnamon filling left, so I’m going to spread it on one strip, put another on top, and twist them together into a round to make a Danish.

I’ll put a spoonful of preserves in the center before baking this off.

Time to bring this project on home.

Take the croissants out of the refrigerator, and let them warm and rise for 60 to 90 minutes at room temperature. They should expand noticeably, and when you gently press one with your finger, the indentation should remain.

Towards the end of the rising time, preheat the oven to 425°F. If you happen to have a convection oven, this is a good place to put it to use. If using convection, set the oven to 400°F. Those of you who have been following us on Facebook know that I have a brand new set of Bosch ovens in the test kitchen. They’re heating up for their inaugural bake right now:

Put the croissants on baking sheets, leaving plenty of space between them; they’re going to expand quite a bit during the bake. Time for the pastry brush and some egg wash. My new favorite thing to use here is cartons of egg substitute instead of breaking eggs and whisking them. Here’s why.

I can pour out exactly the amount I need.

No globs of egg white suddenly puddling on top of things, then sliding off and gluing whatever I’m baking to the pan. And it saves time.

Into the oven they go. The window on this oven is huge. It’s also so clear that you don’t need to open the door to see what’s going on inside.

Cool, or what?

Bake the croissants for 15 minutes; then turn the oven temperature down to 350°F for another 15 minutes. They should be a deep golden brown, even where the dough overlaps itself.

The moment is here. Time to tear in. Make friends with one of the most heavenly things you can do with butter and flour. Meet your first warm croissant.

Please read, bake, and rate our recipe for Baker’s Croissants.

Susan Reid

Chef Susan Reid grew up in New Jersey, graduated from Bates College and the Culinary Institute of America, and is presently the Food Editor of Sift magazine. She does demos, appearances, and answers food (and baking) questions from all quarters.


  1. Sandra (Alicante)

    As luck would have it, I was just thinking of doing a batch of croissants/danish, as I have just run out. I like to make ‘snails’ – you roll out the dough to a sheet, spread with a minimum of soft butter, sprinkle with sultanas and a little sugar and roll like a swiss roll. Cut in inch slices and carry on from there. MMMM!
    My recipe differs slightly. I use brown sugar, less butter and no eggs – ok, actually quite different!
    I have found it easier to do 1 tri-fold, a book fold (both ends to middle, then close like a book) and then another tri-fold.
    Using European butter, I don’t have to blend with flour. Don’t make them in a really hot kitchen, at 32c the butter will be leaking out! Also, don’t bother using really strong flour, 10% protein is fine.

    Thank you so much for sharing your ideas with us. ~Amy @KAF
    I like book folds, too, but if someone has never made this kind of dough before, the letter folds are a little less tricky. Susan

  2. anne_meanders

    What an inspiration! You have demystified the process with your wonderful photos and straightforward directions … so helpful. This may be my weekend’s (is it really only Monday? Boohoo.) fun. Thank you KAF!

  3. Ricardo Neves Gonzalez - FMP-FASE- Petrópolis, R.J., BRAZIL

    Croissants are one of the favorite breads i bake always here. I prefer to bake with my own produced dough. We have the facility to buy laminated dough, ready right on supermarket shelves, but nothing compared with home made ones.
    I make my dough here same as Brioche, but with less eggs than Brioches, with excellent unsalted butter. Here, the best one is from a century Brazilian brand we call Aviação, produced since 1920.
    The other main ingredient is patience. My laminated dough is folded 5 times after been rolled thin and refrigerated for 3 hours between each folded. It turns superb, nothing compared with some industrialized croissants we find everywhere. I bake one, with cinnamon sugar, sliced fresh bananas and cubes of authentic Petit Suisse cheeses, hmmmmm…..delicious. This kind of filling is amazing to enrich that superb recipe of Naan bread KAF posted for us months ago.
    Nice post….as always!

    Thanks Ricardo! Susan

  4. erinhibshman

    Wow. That is all I can really say after reading this! I have never thought about tackling croissants before, but now it’s in my head — maybe I will! I know that whenever I do decide to tackle this, I will be close to my computer so that I can follow these wonderful and amazing directions!! Thank you so much Susan! (And everyone else at KAF too – I cannot tell you how much I enjoy and learn from your website and publications!! 🙂

    You’re most welcome. Even if you never get to the point of making your own, think about how much more you’ll appreciate the next croissant that comes your way! Susan

  5. Bigdogjg

    Thanks for your very clear instructions and photos. I was wondering whether I can substitute milk or water for the eggs – for a friend who is allergic to them?

    I think you could substitute some potato flour and water; add 1/4 cup potato flour or potato flakes to the flour mixture, and use 1 3/4 ounces of milk combined with the water for the liquid. The potato flour will add the tenderness and moisture that the eggs provide, and the milk will help the dough color up nicely. Susan

  6. Margy

    I’ve never made croissant or puff pastry dough before because I always envisioned myself getting into the middle and saying “Hmmm, now which way did they fold that?” The visual instructions make it it seem so much easier. I always enjoy Ricardo’s comments. Makes me want to go to Brazil and check out his bakery (another entry for the bucket list)…unless one of you KAF gals would go and check it out for us? You could call it a case of bakery research! ;-D

    I’m sure PJ and I would be more than happy to do a recon mission. I’m glad you liked the steps. Whole lotta rolling for a week to get all the pictures I needed! Susan

  7. Sandra (Alicante)

    For the person who needed to substitute the eggs, here is my tried, tested ingredient list- I use 8 oz unsalted butter for the butter block.
    ½ pt cool milk (slightly cool to touch, not fridge cold), 2 ¼ tsp table salt (more if coarse) 2 oz light BROWN sugar, 1 ½ oz softened butter, 1lb 2oz plain flour (10% protein) is optimal, not hard bread flour.1 oz block fresh yeast (crumbled).

    So as you can see, it is not a problem to substitute milk for eggs.

    PS. To your test kitchen – I emailed your bakers with a link to my website with a yummy recipe for Easter!

    Hi, Sandra! I have your recipe in hand, and have definite plans to make them. I adore hot cross buns. Susan

  8. fussybritches19

    Yay! A blog about croissants! They’re my favorite thing in the world to bake (and, according to my husband, the tastiest). It’s the perfect baking project for a weekend night when you just want to hang out and watch movies (and hustle into the kitchen to do another fold during a quick intermission). Maybe I’m not reading the instructions carefully enough, but I didn’t see a step for final proofing before baking. If I use this recipe, is that not necessary?
    We always proofed the croissants in the bakery, but we had a proofer with high humidity and controlled temps. Depends partly on whether you’re shaping the croissants and chilling them to bake later or shaping and baking right off. If the dough is soft from being formed, you may want to chill them as the recipe recommends to set up the butter a bit, then bring them out to proof while the oven is heating up. Susan

  9. Lori

    Ah! This is so fun! I have taught several friends at various times how to make your laminated yeast dough-it’s so fun to see the photos-I’m right on track! I teach them how to make croissants (both crescent and the chocolate and ham/cheese filled variations, too) and the coffee cake that’s in the Baker’s Companion. That is one of my absolute favorites! I also love how versatile the dough is-freezing it at any stage renders wonderful results. Thanks so much for posting. I’ll have to use this post for my out-of-town friends who can’t make it in for a class! : )

    You’re most welcome, Lori. Glad to know there are folks out there doing the lamination tango! Susan

  10. Sandra (Alicante)

    Re my previous post – just thought to check something. The butter block that I use is what we Brits refer to as an 8 oz package, which it used to be before this metric stuff. However, in reality it is 250g, which is a bit heavier.

    Susan – so glad you intend to try my Hot Cross Bun recipe! Feel free to browse my site and see what else takes your fancy!
    If it is not already up there, I’ll post my Easter Biscuit recipe soon, I shall have to bake some to get the pics done.

  11. MamaTess

    I was so excited last fall when I found your recipe for pain au chocolat (which received rave reviews), and now this! The photos are fantastic, and I can’t wait to try my hand at these. My husband (and son) adore croissants, as do I, so being able to keep some ready to go in the freezer would be great! Thank you for all your great recipes, tips and ideas!

  12. misoranomegami

    FREEZE? You can FREEZE the dough?! *head desk* I have made homemade croissants on one memorable occasion and didn’t get to try any. At 15 and with a couple of loafs of bread under my belt I decided what my mother really needed for Mother’s Day was a wonderful breakfast in bed including homemade croissants. I started at midnight, quickly discovered that we were out of butter and eggs, went to the grocery store where I discovered that you can’t buy eggs after midnight if you’re under 18, got my sister to buy eggs and started around 1:30 am on the actual baking.

    I did no prep, I kept having to wait for things to warm back up or chill back down. I ended up sitting on a stool watching them bake at 7am when my mother woke up and wandered in the kitchen. I handed her the timer with 10 minutes left on it and told her to take them out when it beeped and went and passed out until dinner. And so my mother had to make her own breakfast to go with the coissants and by the time I woke up they were all gone but everyone agreed they were delicious! I still get teased about that.

    Now I’m going to have to try again! And mmm those ham and cheese ones like wonderful….

  13. Kate

    Susan – So glad you got this up before the weekend! I have kicked off the KAF Weekend Butterama with The Best Brownies Ever (always a hit) and tomorrow I’m tackling these babies! My question is this: were I to use wheat flour in these, how much of the white would I sub for in order to maintain the mainstays of the croissant? I’m looking forward to making freezer pastries for quick breakfasts. 🙂
    Hi Kate,
    Susan’s on the road right now, but I let her know about your question. I’m sure she’ll post a reply when she gets back. 🙂
    ~ MaryJane

    No need to wait! Laptops are wonderful….Kate, if you’re going to add some whole wheat, I strongly recommend using whole wheat pastry flour if you have it. The grind is finer and you’re less likely to shred the dough “envelope” with pastry. If you’re using other whole wheat, you may want to up the moisture a bit so there’s enough in the dough to soak and soften the bran. Have fun! Susan

  14. ZenSojourner

    Why specify IDY? If, as I was told on the live chat, there’s no difference between ADY and IDY (which has not been my experience by a long shot), why not just say “any dry yeast”?

    There’s a huge difference even between yeasts labeled the same – I had an ADY that I was using up to a couple weeks ago, which was performing poorly (grocery store label). When I replaced it with Red Star ADY, the Red Star (from Costco in the 2 lb vacuum sealed bag) was noticeably smaller, dissolved more quickly, and performed much better in the 2nd and 3rd rises than the grocery store ADY. There was a very slight difference in the proofing, but both passed a proofing test. Nevertheless they did not perform at all the same – and this was with yeast that is at least nominally “the same” type. Though I’ve not bothered with anything but ADY for about 20 years now, I can’t imagine that IDY performs exactly the same as ADY when I can see such a noticeable difference in different brands of ADY.

    I’m confused – help me out here?

    Here’s something I wrote recently for future publication on our site-

    “What’s the difference between active dry yeast (ADY) and instant yeast?
    “In days gone by there was a significant difference between active dry yeast and instant yeast. Today, the difference is minimal, and the two can be used interchangeably – with slightly different results. Let’s look at ADY first.

    “Active dry yeast: The classic ADY manufacturing process dried live yeast cells quickly, at a high temperature. The result? Only about 30% of the cells survived. Dead cells “cocooned” around the live ones, making it necessary to “proof” the yeast – dissolve it in warm water – before using.

    “These days, ADY is manufactured using a much gentler process, resulting in many more live cells. Thus, it’s no longer necessary to dissolve ADY in warm water before using – feel free to mix it with the dry ingredients, just as you do instant yeast.

    “ADY, compared to instant yeast, is considered more “moderate.” It gets going more slowly, but eventually catches up to instant – think of the tortoise and the hare. Many bread-bakers appreciate the longer rise times ADY encourages; it’s during fermentation of its dough that bread develops flavor.

    “Instant yeast is manufactured to a smaller granule size than ADY. Thus, with more surface area exposed to the liquid in a recipe, it dissolves more quickly, and gets going faster than ADY. While you can proof it if you like, it’s not necessary; like ADY, simply mixing it into your bread dough along with the rest of the dry ingredients works just fine.

    “One caveat: in dough that’s high in sugar (generally, more than ¼ cup sugar per 3 cups of flour), the sugar evens things out, and instant yeast and ADY will perform the same.”

    All of that said, ADY is often purchased in packets, from the grocery store, where oftentimes it’s been mishandled. Despite its “good” expiration date, it may well have sat in a viciously hot warehouse for weeks, which will deteriorate any yeast quickly. Even if it’s in a jar from the grocery, there’s no telling what it’s been through to get there. On the other hand, our experience is that the vacuum-packed bricks of instant yeast are sold at places where the turnover is faster; they also might not be subjected to the same conditions as supermarkets. For instance, our SAF Instant is shipped direct from the manufacturer, no stops along the way; and it goes immediately into cold storage, until we sell it.

    Bottom line: While they might come close to performing the same, given enough rising time, IDY has a better chance of being fresh than ADY. And that makes a huge difference.

    Hope this helps- PJH

  15. ZenSojourner

    “Bottom line: While they might come close to performing the same, given enough rising time, IDY has a better chance of being fresh than ADY. And that makes a huge difference. ”

    Well I think you just kind of proved my point – ADY and IDY can’t really be expected to perform the same. So given someone wants to go ahead and use ADY instead of the IDY, what changes might be suggested for the recipe above? More ADY? Longer intermediate rise times?

    Sorry if I’m being obtuse, it just hasn’t been my experience that the 2 are perfectly interchangeable.

    Thanks for addressing this, I know it’s a lot of work for you.

    No problem – that’s absolutely what we’re here for. I always build in more time for ADY, when/if I use it. The longer rise develops flavor, so it’s not a negative. If you don’t want to add more rising time, then yeah, increase the amount of yeast. Some people automatically do that anyway, as they love the “old fashioned” super-yeasty taste and smell of lots of manufactured yeast. PJH

  16. dehdahdoh

    WOW is all I have to say! The flavor is phenomenal, they were crispy and flakey and easy to make. My husband is crazy about them! I have never made any kind of laminated dough let alone croissants. This was quite an adventure, I never thought it was possible that I could make something like this and be successful.
    I did have a little bit of trouble. I baked them as recommended, using the convection setting. Because I was using convection so I lowered the temp to 400 and for 15 min.; I then reduced the heat to 325 and baked for 15 min. The croissants in the first pan I baked were all overdone and some of them were burnt. The second pan I reduced the amount of time while baking at 325 degrees by aporx.7 minutes. These were also overdone and at the cusp of being burnt as well; but in better shape than the first pan. What would you recommend for baking time and or temperature adjustment to avoid them being overdone? Is there an internal temperature that they should reach or is it not possible to temp due to the loftiness of the dough?
    It was stated in the blog that you could freeze the croissants. I assume that they are frozen before they are baked. That was what the pictures indicated, I think. When you take the croissants out to bake, do they go into the hot oven frozen or do you thaw them first? I also assume that the baking would be according to the direction in the recipe. Is this correct?

    If this is the first time you’ve made this recipe in your home oven, then you’ve seen first hand the adjustments you need to make to get your own picture perfect results. You were so smart to do a test bake and adjust – this recipe needs even more temperature adjustment for your oven. Turning down the heat even more should work, but be sure to do another test bake. You might even consider checking your oven temperature to see if it is running hot for all baking.
    Sure, you can freeze the shaped dough! Freeze up to 2 weeks and thaw overnight before the bake. Bake as directed in the recipe or blog post. Irene @ KAF

  17. neesha

    I recently made croissants combining your recipe from this ( recipe from Willow Bird Baking. Basically, I was using whichever recipe accommodated what I had on hand and what I had time for. The final results were PERFECT. We made plain, pain au chocolate, ham & swiss, and almond paste-filled. None survived the week.

    My question, though, is if you have any experience with butter alternatives for making croissants? My uncle is allergic to casein, which is a protein in all milk, regardless of whether it’s cow or goat. I’ve recently stumbled upon vegan butter in cubes that I’m tempted to try. I was also wondering if the butter flavored Crisco or a combination of the Crisco and a vegan buttery spread would work. Thoughts?

    A non butter fat may be used. However it must be of the same consistency, it must be plastic. Spreads will not perform. I would start this experiment with Crisco. Frank @ KAF.

    1. vannest

      If you want a croissant made without butter, try an Aberdeen Rowie–named after Aberdeen, Scotland. These use lard–yes, that’s right, lard–instead of butter. They are also cut into “blobs” rather than rolled into “crescents.” Also, when I make them, I sprinkle some very, very coarse salt on top.

      History of the Aberdeen Rowie is interesting. The North Sea fishermen needed something that was more palatable than the hard-tack biscuits sailors traditionally ate. Also, because the North Sea can be very inhospitable and downright freezing cold, they needed something to keep them warm. Enter the Rowie! There is absolutely NOTHING like a hot, fresh Rowie slathered with fresh jam on a cold Aberdeen morning. Here’s a recipe to get you started:

      As you can see, this recipe (like most Rowie recipes on the internet) uses lard and butter. Use the total weight of the fats, but only use lard. Trust me–this sounds disgusting, but it is pure Heaven!

    2. The Baker's Hotline

      Those look so delicious and simple! They resemble biscuits so we could call them crois-biscuits. I am going to have to use this information on the Rowie for the next time I am teaching our croissant class in our Baking Education Center. Thank you! Elisabeth@KAF

  18. "Mike Nolan"

    Great article, Susan, but I was hoping you’d include some of what happened when you came to Kansas City to show us how to make laminated doughs.

    Even though just about every thing went wrong that could have gone wrong, those croissants were still mighty good, weren’t they?

  19. JJ

    Great recipe! So easy and simple! The results, fantastic! I thank you, but I can’t say the same for my waistline! Sigh!

  20. cherieI

    Just wanted to say “thank you” for this great post! I followed this right along with my ipad in the kitchen, and it turned out exactly! I put a little Nuttella in the croissants and they were AMAZING same as the ham and cheese, I put a tiny bit of dijon mustard inside with the ham and cheese-super yummy!
    I really appreciate how you break down recipes, I have learned so much from KAF experts!!

    We aim to please, Cherie – and Susan certainly made croissants accessible, didn’t she? PJH

  21. jessieloo

    I have a question, even though I’m only in the middle of making my Croissants today…
    I put the butter inlay in, did my first two turns, but have noticed that my dough feels VERY different this time, it’s very soft and easy to roll, while the other times it’s been very hard to roll out, springing back with me having to pull and tug to get it to the correct measurements. It’s also sticky after the 30 minutes in the fridge, so I added more flour to the table while rolling it out, so I’m guessing I added less flour this time while mixing.

    My questions about the difference between the doughs. For the hard to roll out dough – Could I have added too much flour? Maybe kneaded it too long? Maybe left it in the fridge too long for the first rise? I’m thinking I kneaded it 10-15 minutes before.

    I used the blog directions today and they are a little different than the recipe directions…in the beginning with adding all the ingredients in the mixer right away, while in the recipe you let the sponge sit while you do the butter, then finish the sponge. Could this have made a difference? I did as the Blog said and added all the ingredients in the beginning. I’m also wondering if maybe my water wasn’t warm enough?

    I have a feeling the Croissants will be great either way, but am very curious as to why the dough is so soft and easy to roll out today and would love your opinion…Thanks!
    Hi there,
    From what you are describing, it does sound like you’ve had too much flour in the dough with previous batches. Too much flour makes for drier dough and that is always harder to work with. Sounds like you hit it right on the money this time, so I’d stick with the method and amounts you used for this particular batch. ~ MaryJane

  22. cookie&co

    I need help with the rolling technique.
    1. I did apply a few light even strokes on the dough to make sure the butter adheres a bit to the dough before rolling. After I roll, the dough seems to be stretched to the top and the bottom, leaving the thin layer of the dough or sometimes the dough was all around like borders. The consistency of the butter was ok. The butter was well sheeted and spread nicely but the dough itself tended to be pushed to the top/ bottom n sometimes on the sides.
    2. After I folded the dough, when it came to the next rolling, it was not sheeted well. Instead of making a nice sharp rim, the bottom layers tended to stretch out more and create an uneven rim.
    Could u please explain the rolling technique to make sure that all the layers are rolled out evenly?
    I watched this Video, without any understanding.
    Thank you so much
    I think your dough may be too warm when you are laminating and rolling and your rolling pin may be a bit too heavy. I think having the dough at a better temperature will help you achieve that even rim. ~Amy

  23. rodsterrod23

    I just made the ham and cheese croissant version and they turned out very good. I love spinach and would love to try the spinach filling. Susan, will you please share the spinach filling recipe you used?
    Hi! I’m so glad you had success with the recipe. Here’s the spinach filling formula:
    Spinach Croissant Filling
    1 (10 ounce) package frozzen chopped spinache, thawed and squeezed dry
    1/4 cup (2 ounces) garlic herb cheese, such as boursin
    1/2 cup (2 ounces) Swiss cheese, grated
    1/2 teaspoon salt
    1/4 teaspoon pepper
    1/2 to 1 teaspoon chopped garlic (optional)
    Combine all of the ingredients in a small mixing bowl. Refrigerate until ready to use. Use 2 1/2 tablespoons of filling for each pastry. Can be stored, covered int he refrigerator, for up to a week, or frozen for up to 2 months. Yield: 1 generous cup, enough to fill 6 croissants or turnovers.


  24. mavigilmore

    I am about to make my fourth turn and am wondering how to adjust for the danish scenario. My husband is addicted to Zaro’s danish with loads of walnuts and raisins and I am trying to recreate it here.
    I am looking for cooking time for a classic angel food cake pan.
    Also can I fill and refrigerate or is it best to let the dough rest overnight and then fill and bake. I am a novice but very excited about this recipe.
    Thanks for being here!

    The Danish Adjustment, is purely spices for a more flavorful dough. Typically Angel Food Cakes bake at 325 degrees, for about 40-45 minutes. Frank @ KAF.

  25. sohn

    Wow. Mine are baking the oven. They smell and look amazing. I’ve tried so many different recipes to make croissants and they never justified the time put in to make them vs what came out of the oven. I started your recipe last night and my family will have fresh croissants this (weekday) morning! Thanks!!!

    Great! So glad you finally took the leap into croissants – I know you’ll be pleased with the results. PJH

  26. sweetthang1972

    So you didn’t proof the croissants before baking? I was surprised to see that you shaped them, refrigerated them and then baked immediately. Am I understanding this correctly?

    You are understanding this correctly, the recipe as written does not need an extended rising period for the croissants themselves!-Jon

  27. gobluem82

    Just wanted to say that I made these with my 16-year-old son over the holiday break. His girlfriend was quite impressed! It was a fun project to do together and was easier than I expected. The good news is that half of the dough is still in the freezer to enjoy some other time! Thanks, as usual, for taking the mystery out of the process with your photos and instructions.
    I’m so glad to hear you had fun together. Can’t wait to hear what you make with the rest of the dough. Ham and cheese maybe? ~ MaryJane

  28. suki maman

    I love this post and can relate to it:
    I’m out here in Siberia, developing recipes, including croissants, often at night.
    I know what you mean about the ‘Twilight Zone’ and the ‘Witching Hour’.
    sometimes I work alone in a production facility that looks like that place out of the film ‘SAW’ and it is SCARY as hell – can’t wait to get out of there.
    Other nights I am way to busy to think about zombies outside…
    The first few days of croissant trials gave me brioche-like textures, tasted great, but not what I needed. Gradually, I am getting things flakier and more developed – the biggest change for me was the butter.
    Thanks for the post!

    Glad we could help, Suki – stay warm! PJH

  29. Chris I.

    Buttery, flakey, mmmmm! The description of the heavenly scent inspired me to try this recipe and I smiled at the results. Moist, buttery interior, good rise and form. The tips edited into the article for turning the dough 90 degrees, etc. helped get good crescent form.

  30. Eileen E

    Is there a limit to how long I can refrigerate the croissants after I shape them. I would like to shape them at night and then bake them in the morning?

    1. MaryJane Robbins

      That’s just fine to use Rashmi, we’ve even used store brands with good success. ~ MJ

  31. Rashmi K

    re: oven heating
    the blog post notes that you preheat the oven *while* the formed croissants are in the fridge.
    the recipe has you take the croissants out of the fridge, then preheat the oven – for the final proof.
    given that ovens heat up at different times, what’s the idea here? The first time I made this recipe, I went with the blog post and and the croissants were done in 15 minutes.
    thanks for the response on the dry milk – appreciate it!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Rashmi- Good question. The most important thing is that the oven is fully up to temp when your croissants are loaded in so they get a nice, intense, initial blast of heat. Feel free to start preheating your oven whenever you feel is necessary for your oven to be fully up to temp when your croissants are ready to load up. Happy Baking! Jocelyn@KAF

  32. susan

    First pan just came out. Smells wonderful! But they didn’t rise as high as I expected. Realized oven was set to 400* by mistake. Gotta say they sure are tasty. Pan #2 has a spinach, chicken, bacon and cheese filing. Pan #3 is going to be Apple pie croissants. Haven’t got a clue what pan #4 &#5 will be!! Thank you for an awesome recipe!!!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Dear Susan, it is very fun to hear how creative you are with the fillings. Take care, Jaydl@KAF

    1. MaryJane Robbins

      Hi there,
      I’m not sure if you mean baked or unbaked, but unbaked they should definitely go in the freezer, not fridge. ~ MJ

  33. Eduardo R

    A novice baker, wife loves croissants so, I thought I’d tackle this for her. Lots of fun, ha ha, for my first time. I’ve actually made two batches in the past 3 days. The first batch, I followed the written KAF recipe ( The procedure for the dough was challenging, having the proper equipment would help as well. I ended up with a large mess but managed to pull it all together. I’m a patient guy. The frustration was worth it. The flavor and flakiness was perfect except that my pans apparently badly burned the bottoms. I thought I’d try some short cuts on the second half of dough of the the first batch, bottom line… there are no shortcuts! They tasted like biscuits. My second attempt, I used the instructions listed on this page. Wow! Seemed easier and saved me lots of time wrestling with the dough. I pretty much have to hand mix/knead everything. They came out perfect except for the flavor wasn’t there. I looked over the recipe(s) for comparison and I believe that the vanilla (optional) is left out of Susan’s instructions. The ham and cheese tasted perfect but the plains didn’t have that flavor the first batch had. Still loved them, my wife’s co-workers thought they were a hit! Thanks Susan and KAF – I’m a confident croissant baker now. I learned my lesson on shortcuts, there are none. Follow the recipe and you will be fine. Being patient and neat on folding and lining up the dough is very important. Ready for next mission.

  34. Eduardo R

    I would like to amend my previous post as I forgot to ask one more question. Aside from the dimensions given for rolling out the dough prior to cutting shapes (12×18), is there also a desired thickness I need to achieve? Thank you and Happy Holidays! Peace!

  35. arja

    I’d like to know how many folds would give best result if I do book folds instead of letter fold? I prefer book fold for being neater than letter fold. Thanks!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Two book folds should be enough, Arja, but I have also done a recipe which calls for one letter fold and then two book folds. Barb@KAF

  36. arja

    I realized that I have some more questions to be asked (if you don’t mind).

    What do eggs actually do in this recipe? I’ve seen some recipes don’t use egg. What if I just ommit them?

    I’ve seen a recipe that only use butter to make beurrage (yes, no flour). What kind of result to be expected by using entirely-butter-beurrage?

    I tried the classic puff pastry recipe, it was a huge improvement for me (after 8 times failling on puff pastry, croissant, and kouign amann). I realized that the 15 minutes of refrigeration after each turn did really help in keeping the butter layers pliable without the fear of tearing the dough. Is it possible to apply the same method in this recipe?

    Thanks! 😉

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Eggs give croissant dough the lovely yellow color and also contribute to flavor and texture, Arja. There are different ways of making beurrage. Sometimes recipes call for the addition of lemon juice also. The flour helps to stabilize the butter so it doesn’t “flow” out the seams when it is being rolled. It is fine to follow a different recipe for the beurrage, as long as it is the same weight. It is fine to refrigerate the dough for a brief period after each turn. Just be careful the butter does not get to hard. Barb@KAF

  37. arja

    Can’t thank you enough for the formula and the additional advices! My croissants and kouign-amanns came out beautifully. I baked half the recipe at night, and no single piece did last for breakfast!

    I slightly adapted the recipe to what was currently available at home. I used bread flour, and to decrease the amount of gluten, I substituted a generous six tablespoon of black glutinous rice flour for the same amount of bread flour, and filled my cup with bread flour until it reach 3 cups (mind you, I made half the recipe). It was responsible for the nicely colored crumb and beautifully browned crust. To loose the gluten even further, I dusted my counter with sago flour everytime I rolled the dough. I also substitute 3/8 cup of sweetened condensed milk for every 1/4 cup of dry milk. Delicious!

    I used whole salted butter for the beurrage to make life easier, it worked really well with that 15 minutes of refrigeration after each turn. Guess what, no single crack and tear happened (woohoo!). I did 4-4-2 folding pattern to make sure the dough neatly folded and to avoid forming too much fat layers.

    I retarded the dough for 2 days (also rolled the dough once to degas and flatten the dough) then proofed the croissants and kouign-amanns for 2 hours with double egg wash (before and after proofing). Puffed up beautifully in my stove top oven (well, my regular oven was not working at the moment, so I used my mom’s old fashioned stove top oven over blazing hot fire for 10 minutes, then 12 minutes over medium heat). Did I tell you how happy I was to see that honeycomb pattern?

    For kouign-amanns, I added cinnamon sugar rather than just plain granulated sugar. Eager to find out what it taste like if I’m using poolish next time.


  38. katherine Hollada

    After reading the blog I AM TERRIFIED. Can this recipe be cut in half? Is the first mixing of the dough done in a stand mixer? Would like to try this but my computer is in a different room and I think I will be running back and forth looking at the pictures. I am fairly new to baking. Thanks for your help.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Katherine, there’s no need to be scared of croissants–just a flaky, French pastry! However, we do understand that the preparation of this dough by seem a bit intimidating. If you are a beginner baker you may feel more comfortable starting with an easy pastry dough like our Easy Mini Puffs, which you can take a look at here:

      On to your questions so that when you are ready to take on croissants, you will have great success; the first step of the dough-mixing can be done in the bucket of your bread machine set on the dough cycle or in a stand mixer using the paddle attachment. You could hypothetically divide this recipe in half, but since the preparation is quite labor intensive, we recommend freezing half of the prepared dough if you only want to bake a dozen croissants at a time. Good luck and happy croissant baking! Kye@KAF

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      We hope you will find some great tips and techniques offered both in the recipe and the blog! Elisabeth@KAF

  39. Menthia Carpenter

    I have a few questions. Sorry if the answers are posted somewhere in all the comments but I scanned through quickly. If you use a convection oven and you start at 400 degrees, do you still turn the oven down in temp after 15 minutes? Also to what temperature? And since convection oven speeds up cooking, how long do you cook the croissants for?

    Thanks for your answer and I LOVE the instructions and pictures. I took a class and your way is simplified in so may ways.

    1. Susan Reid, post author

      Yes, start there and turn down to 375°F. The answer to how long but I’m going to tell you what every chef I trained with told me: “until they’re done”. Which means you want to keep an eye on the seam where the spirals of dough overlap. You’re looking for that seam to stop looking raw and wet, and maybe even pick up some color. If the top is the golden brown you want, and the seam is still raw-looking, turn down the oven another 25°F and keep checking. Susan

  40. menthiac

    I wanted to add that your instructions are written so well. And the pictures are so great to have as a guideline. I spent 4 hours in a class and it was so much fun. But alone, I found myself almost terrified to try; especially since it is a very costly project. But after seeing your post, I feel no more fear. I’m going to do this. Thank you so much for such excellent written instructions.

    1. Susan Reid, post author

      Thank you, I hope you have fun. Once the dough is made you’ll feel like a rich potentate, able to create lovely things at will! 🙂 Susan

  41. Kristina

    I make croissants every Christmas Eve day and warm them up for Christmas morning. Freezing them would make my holiday more relaxed and our scrumptious breakfast would be fresher. Would I bake right from the freezer, let them sit out while preheating or let them come to room temp before baking?
    Thanks in advance!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Kristina, when I make a big batch of croissants I always freeze them right after shaping them. Then when I want to bake them, I take them out the night before and let them thaw and proof overnight in the fridge. The next morning, they go right from fridge to oven! Easy peasy and so tasty! Bryanna@KAF

  42. Jim

    The blog says

    “After you’ve finished your turning and folding, let the dough rest in the refrigerator for at least 4 hours. Overnight is better. You could also divide it in half and freeze half at this point.”

    Please clatify, should the half to freeze go in the freezer after dividing in half or after the 4 hour/overnight resi in the refrigerator

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Jim, you freeze half after dividing the dough, at the same time that you stick the other half in the refrigerator. Barb@KAF

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      While it sounds like a good idea, save yourself the heartache. The sheets of dough would be far too thin using a pasta machine as the sheeter. Irene@KAF

  43. Phoenix

    Which level of the refrigerator do you use to store the dough and shaped croissant? How long should we freeze the shaped croissants until they are good to bake?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Anywhere in the fridge that you can store them flat should be fine, Phoenix, and they don’t need to be frozen before baking — just chilled for 30 minutes. If you do choose to freeze the shaped croissants for future use, we’d recommend using them within 1-2 weeks of freezing. Mollie@KAF

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Phoenix, you’re going to use a full lb of butter in this recipe – 2Tbsp/1 ounce in the dough itself, the rest (1 7/8 cups/15 ounces) in the inlay. We find that the milk powder creates a richer dough, but it can be left out if you prefer. The amount of butter, on the other hand, isn’t something we’d mess with in a croissant. They are heavy on the butter by design and just aren’t the treat to pick if you’re looking something lighter. Mollie@KAF

  44. Al F.

    I’ve made these now for the 2nd time. Curiously, in both instances the recipe required an extra 30+ grams above the maximum allotted in the recipe (using 1/2 the recipe). Working in the extra flour (since I don’t put it all in at once) leads to a lot of kneading. Not sure if that affects the final product or not. It achieved a nice flake but I wondered if it mightn’t have been even better.
    What was novel in all of this was that I did all of the folding and rolling outside. It was a nice cool night so it seemed a good idea to do it outside where everything wouldn’t melt – and I put the rolling pin in the freezer between folding. There was something REALLY nice about working the dough in the cool air under the night sky.
    I did manage to mess up the cuts, coming out with 16 rather than 12 bits of flour (a 1/2 recipe, remember) – resulting in mini-croissants. But it turned out that those were even more ideal for my 4 and 7 year olds who scarfed them up smeared with a bit of home-made hazelnut spread (happy accidents!)
    All in all very rewarding and very delicious. Thanks KAF. You folks are fast turning me into a baker..

  45. Yuri Ellingson

    Hi there– I recently moved to Colorado, and am very new to high altitude baking. Do you have any recommendations on the types of adjustments to make for those of us at elevations of 5,000’+? I know the dryer and thinner air typically impacts the dough and dries it out quickly, so adding liquids and adjusting the temp/baking times are usually recommended.

    Thanks very much!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Rashmi, some bakers swear by using European-style butter to make croissants, as it is richer and more full in flavor. However, Grade AA (“regular”) butter contains some water, which creates steam between the layers as it bakes. We’ve found that European-style butter tends to create a leaky, greasy final product. We recommend using Grade AA, unsalted butter for best results, but if you’re committed to using your European-style, try using slightly less butter. Good luck! Kye@KAF

  46. Suzanne

    You mention that I can refrigerate the dough overnight before rolling out and shaping, but alternatively, could I go one step beyond that and refrigerate the already-formed unbaked croissants overnight so I can just pop them in the oven in the morning?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Suzanne, you run a slight risk of drying out and also losing some definition of shape, but it should work. In the morning, your croissants would go right into the oven, without any proof time at room temp. A loose, lightly greased piece of plastic wrap over top can also help to keep the moisture in, without restricting any rise or sticking. Mollie@KAF

  47. Peter Waksman

    Croissant do not need eggs. I use King Arthur bread flower and classic ingredients: per 2 cups flour (makes 8 croissants)
    – wet ingredients: 1/2 cup warn milk, 1/4 cup warm water, 1 tsp sugar, 1/2 (!!!) tsp active dry yeast
    – dry ingredients: 2 cups flour, 1 tsp salt, 1 tsp sugar, 3 tbs peanut Oil

    Mix into a lump (may need extra tbs of water)

    Kneed until silky ~3 minutes

    Let rise until doubled. Then follow usual instructions for butter folding: 2 turns, 2hrs rest, 2 more turns, 2 hrs rest….then roll out the croissant. Because the small amount of yeast, let croissant rise for 5-8 hours (covered). Wash with egg, Bake 9-11 minutes at 425F oven. Add a spritz of water in the beginning. Check after 9 minutes and add time as needed. Use you nose to avoid burning. Let cool.

    Note: it is unlikely a French chef would use a ruler or throw away dough. It is true that the cut edge of the dough gives a nice sharp appearance of layering. So sometime you trim an edge, but be sure not to waste that good stuff! Roll it up inside the croissant.

  48. Peter Waksman

    I should add: I have tried several American (unsalted) butter varieties: LandOLakes is tasteless, Cabot is slightly better, Katies taste good but crumbles and does not roll well – also a bit sour when cooked. Organic Valley tastes good but is also too crumbly. Mixing Organic Valley and Cabot is so so – decent taste, not so crumbly.

    The best croissant I made, by far, used Irish Butter. Rolls well, tastes geat. Costs a lot. I am thinking of trying some other imported ones.

    Also: use baking paper, as Croissant absorb flavor from a pan if they are in direct contact with it.

  49. Diana

    I’ve been dreaming of trying my hand at making croissants for years and I really appreciated your easy to follow instructions and demystification of the process. Your post gave me the courage to tackle the project and my first batch of buttery beauties came out of the oven a little while ago, much to my delight. The recipe worked perfectly and will go on my favorite list of special things to make on days when I get snowed in!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Good question, Kelly. Pastry flour is very low in protein content, which makes baked goods tender and soft. All-purpose flour has a bit more gluten-forming proteins, which help maintain the structure of the croissant with all the the lovely layers of butter in between. Pastry flour might not support the croissants as much as you like, but you could consider using a 50/50 blend if you’d like to experiment. Happy baking! Kye@KAF

    2. George H

      Unlike straight butter based pastry, this is a leavened pastry. So it does need a bit of gluten.

  50. George H

    A bit confusing about the recipe. KA is usually precise. But this recipe seems unusual abut the proportion of flour and liquid.

    I made one pastry before. The dough was pretty dry, very hard to roll out. After a couple rounds, I was exhausted and rarely came back to try again.

    For this recipe, liquid “2 large eggs plus enough warm water to make 2 cups of liquid (16 ounces)”, flour “631g to 723g King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour”. Those are kind of a wide range.

    Any thought?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi George, you’re right—this recipe is a bit unusual in a few of the measurements, but there are good reasons why. The recipe calls for adding enough water to make a full 16 ounces to account for the differences in the size of the eggs bakers use. This way, even if your eggs are a little bigger or a little smaller, you will always add 16 ounces of liquid, which is just the right amount of moisture for this laminated dough. As for the range in the amount of flour, we recommend starting with the smaller amount (631 grams) and only adding more as necessary (when the dough starts to stick). This range accounts for the difference in humidity and seasons, as well for the differences in the absorption of the flour that might be used. Dry winter months may result in the lesser amount of flour being sufficient, but sometimes in the humid summer, more flour needs to be added. Trust your instincts and adjust the dough as necessary until it’s nice and smooth, without sticking. Good luck! Kye@KAF

  51. Joanna

    Looks delicious! Could I substitute with King Arthur Gluten Free Flour and get the same results? I am looking for a good GF croissant recipe. Thank you!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Joanna, thanks for asking. Our Gluten-Free Measure for Measure Flour isn’t designed to be used in recipes that call for yeast, so we don’t recommend trying to make that swap in this recipe. However, if you’re up for experimenting you could try using Measure for Measure in our Classic Puff Pastry recipe (no yeast), and shape the dough into croissant-like shapes as described. You might need to add a few additional tablespoons of butter in order to get the dough to come together properly. We wish you good luck in your search! Kye@KAF

  52. Evan L. Fielder

    I am inspired and awed by your meticulous step by step recipe and procedure. I also love your writing style and humor. I am going to do my mousing elsewhere, but will return to your other posts. Thank you.

  53. J. Bromer

    Wow! I’m impressed! I wish My Momma was still alive, I would tackle these! I baked for her as she loved for me to bake breads and also my being the daughter to who followed in her footsteps as a cake decorator…..

  54. Carmen

    These look delightful, thank you for sharing! Do you suppose I could take a page out of Erin McDowell’s book (chocolate pie crust) and replace 1/4 cup of the flour with cocoa powder to make chocolate chocolate croissants?

    1. Susan Reid, post author

      Hi, Carmen. You’re asking the dough to do a lot of stretching here, so if you want a chocolatey croissant the best way to get there is to mix the cocoa into the butter that you’re rolling into the dough. It’s pretty magical and really works. Susan

  55. Suzanne

    Question if I am doing only croissants do I leave the sugar out? Bit unsure when you say leave 1/2 or aLL of this out. Just making sure:)

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      We’re happy to clarify, Suzanne. Our recipe calls for 1/4 cup of sugar to be added to the dough, which rounds out the flavor nicely without making the croissants overly sweet. If you plan on filling your croissants with something like meat or cheese, you can reduce the sugar to 2 tablespoons or omit it entirely. We’d encourage you to use at least 2 tablespoons of ensure the croissants turn a beautiful golden color in the oven. Happy baking! Kye@KAF

Post a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *