Traveling Crusty Artisan Bread: a passionate bread aficionado shares her journey

Alison May is an independent consultant working with companies, large and small, in helping develop sustainable and socially responsible enterprises. She’s been honored as one of the 100 most influential business women in the San Francisco Bay area, where she lives and works. Alison is also a member of King Arthur Flour’s board of directors. San Francisco is a great bread town, and King Arthur Flour makes wonderful flours for bread; so it’s not surprising Alison has become an enthusiastic bread baker. Follow along with her as she shares her favorite artisan loaf.

I was chosen to join the board of directors of King Arthur Flour in 2008 because I had a background in finance, socially responsible companies, and knowledge of employee-owned companies.

I love to cook, but at that time didn’t bake; and figured, “How hard could it be”? So I started with something I thought would be easy: baguettes.

Ha! Little did I know that baguettes are considered the most difficult bread to bake, and “the art of artisan breads.”

photo 2 (2)

For the first six months, I baked three baguettes every day, generally wondering why anyone would go to all of the trouble. It took a lot of time and effort, and my baguettes just never seemed to come out very light, airy, or tasty.

I was frustrated because I couldn’t pinpoint a specific problem. I read many books, tried many techniques, and still failed. But I was determined to be a baker.


I would take my baguettes to the King Arthur Flour board meetings, and ask the wonderful bakers at King Arthur to critique them – and this was no small effort, since I had to bake the baguettes in the wee hours of the morning in San Francisco, travel 8 to 9 hours to Norwich, Vermont, and get up to work with the bakers at 5 a.m. the next morning.


Master baker Jeffrey Hamelman, King Arthur’s bakery director, advised me that when you take the baguettes out of the oven, “The bread will sing.” That had never happened for me, until one day, almost absent-mindedly going through the process, I took the baguettes out of the oven, put them on the bread rack, leaned over to smell the wonderful aroma, and heard it – the bread was actually singing!

In that moment, I was engulfed by the sound, color, warmth, and intoxicating fragrance of freshly baked bread, and for an instant, I was transported back in time to the beginning of civilization, where women baked bread in communal ovens and shared their stories. It was a deep connection and I was hooked.


Since that moment, I joyfully bake baguettes every day, and they’re simply delicious. I share them with friends, family, and neighbors. I take baguettes to everyone I know or meet, and give them to the shopkeepers in my San Francisco neighborhood. It’s always the best gift, and it seems to create that same, ancient connection that I had made.

People will immediately share stories of their childhood as bread evokes memories of family, comfort, and innocence. Invariably, when I give someone a baguette, the first words out of their mouths are, “My mother used to…” And they then go on to talk about growing up in the Middle East, or France, or Argentina, or Ohio.

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My mission is to show home bakers and wannabe home bakers that they can bake fabulous artisan bread at home, and that this bread will be better than 95% of the bread they buy in bakeries. People come to my home to learn and teach new “baking tricks,” and wrapped within that soothing aroma of freshly baked bread, we make new friends, eat, drink, and share our own stories.

I call the following loaf “Traveling Crusty Artisan Bread,” because it can be made almost anywhere without special equipment.


Although great baguettes can be made from this recipe, they do require some extra gadgets and “tricks,” and are more challenging. The Traveling Crusty Artisan Bread is the next best thing, as it’s delicious and requires only tools you’re likely to find in most kitchens.

What could be nicer than going to someone’s home and baking fabulous artisan bread? If you’re a house guest, they‘ll probably ask you to stay a couple of extra days. Homemade bread is the best gift: It smells great, tastes great, and makes people happy.

Crusty artisan bread has only four ingredients: flour, water, yeast, and salt. It’s important to use high-quality ingredients if you want high-quality bread, so make sure you use only the best flour (King Arthur, of course).

You‘ll want flour that isn’t bleached or bromated. Bleaching masks the fact that the product uses an inferior part of the wheat berry, and bromates are used to speed up the natural maturing period of the flour. Excellent bread is like excellent wine; you can’t hurry either of them. photoflourbag

The flour should have a protein content of 11.7% to 12.7%; the higher the protein content the higher the gluten. King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour checks in at 11.7%; King Arthur Bread Flour, at 12.7%. Bagel flour, (King Arthur High-Gluten Flour, for example), will have a protein content of 14%; cake flour, 7% to 10%.

I find it works equally well if you use all-purpose or bread flour. I tend to use all-purpose flour because it’s easily available, and yields a softer dough and bread with larger, more numerous holes; but either works.

I sometimes substitute ¼ cup whole wheat flour for all-purpose flour when making the overnight starter. It gives the bread excellent flavor and nice color. Until you get the hang of it, you don’t want to substitute too much whole wheat in making artisan bread because it contains the entire wheat berry, including the bran (or outer shell), whose “shards” tend to puncture the little bubbles created by the flour, yeast, and water doing their magic. Whole wheat flour tends to make a denser bread.


If you’re not going to make and maintain your own natural leaven (e.g., sourdough starter, which is easy and worth it, but time consuming), the quality of store-bought yeast is very important.  I highly recommend SAF Red instant, which comes vacuum-sealed in a 16-ounce package. You’ll only use a little each time you make this bread, but you can keep the rest for months in a sealed canister in your freezer. Those little packets you find in the supermarket can be iffy as far as freshness and vigor, but will do if nothing else is available.

Different salts vary in strength. The key is to choose one you like and stick to it, altering the amount of salt you use based on your personal taste.  King Arthur sells an excellent bread salt I like to use.

Water is important, and acidity (pH levels) can affect the bread’s rising (fermentation process). But work with what you have, and adjust with practice over time. Some people use bottled water to control the pH consistency.

I advocate baking all the time, using too much of something, too little, screwing up, hitting home runs, and just getting a feel for the dough so you’ll know what it needs. You’re working with a living culture, and when you get into the entire “bread experience,” it’s easy to sense there’s a rich relationship with the dough and bread. If you bake bread frequently, your kitchen will be full of wild yeast and your bread will develop its own personal signature.


Some useful (but not mandatory) pieces of equipment are a timer; a scale; an apron, and a baker’s bench knife, which is a 6” long rectangle of stainless steel with a handle across the top used to divide dough into pieces or to scrape dried dough from your countertop (a.k.a. “bench”).

You can find absolutely everything you need related to baking at, including equipment, ingredients, recipes, and a great help line.  No other flour purveyor has more rigorous standards or more consistently performing flours than King Arthur.


The company’s been around for 224 years, is 100% employee owned, is a Benefit Corporation (B Corp), and is genuinely committed to bringing the joy of baking to everyone.

Bakers also work with metric weights, not cups and teaspoons. But not everyone has access to a scale, especially when traveling; so I’m using cups and teaspoons for this recipe. As a reference:

1 cup flour = approx. 121g, 4 1/4 ounces
1 cup water = approx. 227g, 8 ounces
1 teaspoon salt = approx. 7g

So let’s get going.

Make the starter the night before by mixing together with your fingers:

1 cup (4 ¼ ounces) King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour (or ¾ cup all-purpose flour + ¼ cup whole wheat flour)
3/4 cup (6 ounces) room-temperature water
1 pinch yeast

Cover and let sit at room temperature overnight.

If you need to speed this up, let it sit in the oven with the oven light on for about 6 to 7 hours, and it should be ready to use.


After it sits, it will contain many little bubbles and will have increased in size by about 25%.  The slower overnight fermentation at room temperature will create a more complex flavor in your bread.

The next day – baking day – add:

For 2 medium loaves
all of the starter
1 3/4 cups (14 ounces) lukewarm water
4 1/2 cups (19 ounces) King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour or King Arthur Unbleached Bread Flour
2 ½ teaspoons salt (approx.)
1 1/2 teaspoons instant yeast

For 2 large loaves
all of the starter
2 1/2 cups less 1 tablespoon (19 1/2 ounces) lukewarm water
6 cups (25 1/2 ounces) King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour or King Arthur Unbleached Bread Flour
1 tablespoon salt (approx.)
2 teaspoons instant yeast

It’s important to combine the ingredients in order, as follows:

Add the starter to the warm water (about 80°F to 85°F) and mix it with your fingers until the two are thoroughly combined.


Add the flour and incorporate so that all of the flour is moist, mixing with your fingers or a dough whisk. Do not add the salt or yeast at this stage.

Let the shaggy dough rest, covered, for 15 to 30 minutes so the flour hydrates. This is key to great bread, and is called “autolyse.”

After the rest period, add the salt and yeast and incorporate well, kneading with your hands until you don’t feel anything grainy from the salt or yeast. This takes about 2 minutes.

Now you’re ready to make the bread.

For the next 2 hours, you’ll work the bread by doing a “stretch and fold” every ½ hour. You never “knead” the bread in the traditional sense; you simply run your hand under the faucet to get it wet, then scoop your hand under the dough, and pull the dough up and over itself about 4 to 5 times. You never pound the dough; try to handle it rather gently. This process helps create nice big holes in the bread.


A good timer is useful here. I use two timers: one set to remind me to do the “turn” every 30 minutes, and the other set for 2 hours so I don’t have to keep track of how many “turns” I’ve done. I wear them around my neck because I get distracted.

During the 2 hours, your dough will increase in size about 20% to 25%.  Keep the container covered, at room temperature, in between the stretch-and-fold processes.

Your dough with be very wet and sticky when you start the process, and it’s tempting to add flour at the early stage; but it will become a bit firmer during the stretch-and-fold period. What you’re going for is the highest level of hydration (wetness) while still keeping the dough workable. The dough in this recipe is about 85% hydration (weight of the water divided by weight of the flour), which is very sticky indeed.


While any container works during this phase, a glass or clear plastic container is preferable as it allows you to see the dough as it ferments and begins to develop little bubbles and holes.

After 2 hours of stretching and folding, turn your container upside down onto a cutting board (or “bench”) and let the dough fall naturally onto the bench. This is the dough’s “final stretch”. Do not put flour on the cutting board before you let it fall; the dough should stick slightly to the cutting board.


Ed note: My dough must have been stickier than Alison’s; I found the work surface needed a generous coating of flour to turn the dough from an unworkable sticky mass to something that was still extremely sticky, but could be handled. 

The following directions may or may not be possible for you to follow as written. If you’ve used bread flour instead of all-purpose, your dough will be a bit easier to work with, and you can probably round it up as Alison explains. If you’ve used all-purpose flour, and your dough is very sticky, keep your hands and the work surface well-floured, and round the loaves into smooth balls as best you can.


Lightly flour the top of the dough and cut it into two sections, cutting with a bench knife or sharp knife. Only flour the top of the dough – not the bottom.* From now on, the outside – the side you lightly flour – will eventually be your crust.  You want the inside to stay as moist as possible, and have minimal contact with additional flour.

*Ed. note: As mentioned above, you may find the dough is so sticky that it’s necessary to flour the surface on which you’re working; just try to keep the added flour to a minimum.

With each loaf, and using the bench knife or something similar, flip the dough over so that the floured side is now on the bottom. Flatten lightly and pull the side nearest you up and over towards the middle. Pull the left side then the right side up and over towards the middle.

Finally, pull the side farthest from you up and over towards you so that the dough now looks like an envelope. Then fold in half, away from you, with the floured side on the outside, and roll the dough into a ball by cupping from underneath with your hands and pushing it away from you, cupping from underneath again, and then rolling back towards you. It should stick slightly to bench and create some tension and something almost like a membrane. Your goal is to create a smooth ball with its seam on the bottom.

Try to work the dough as little as possible, taking just 3 to 5 motions to make a tight ball. This is tricky to learn, but it gets easier with practice. The balls should feel and look (but not smell) like a baby’s behind. Let the dough rest for 15 minutes.

After 15 minutes, repeat the process again. Pat the balls down gently, then flour the tops lightly, flip them over so the floured side is on the bottom, make the envelope by pulling the sides and stretching towards the middle. But now, pat into the shape you like. I suggest that for the first attempts, you roll into balls and make two round loaves.


Put each loaf into a basket or bowl, seam side up, in which you’ve put a light towel sprinkled with enough flour so the dough won’t stick. Some people use oil to coat the bowl, but flour will give you a rustic-looking crust. Cover the bowl with a towel, and let the loaves sit for 1½ hours at room temperature, until they’ve risen noticeably.

One of the most important things required for a good, crusty crust is a homemade “steam oven.” This is hard to do for baguettes; but for round loaves, you can replicate a steam oven by creating a large, tall Dutch oven made of two cast iron skillets (or any oven-safe metal or ceramic skillet/pot) that fit on top of each other.

The skillet on the bottom will contain the bread; and the larger, deeper skillet, placed upside-down atop the shallower pan, will be the cover. The pans need to fit on top of each other so that moisture won’t escape. This captured moisture replicates a steam oven.

You can use any covered pot or pan that goes in the oven for this phase. I do find, however, that the more contained the bread is in your skillet or pot, i.e, the more it fits the size of the loaf, the higher your bread will rise. If the dough sprawls too much in a large skillet, the bread will tend to expand sideways as well as upward. But don’t worry; either way your bread will be puffy, light, full of big holes, and delicious.

Thirty minutes before you’re ready to bake, preheat the oven to 500°F with both skillets in the oven – you want them to be very hot. You’ll bake one loaf at a time, so put the second shaped loaf into the refrigerator at the same time you preheat the oven. You can then bake it after you finish the first loaf, or the next day.


Ed. note: I’m using an Emile Henry crock here – I found that the smaller of Alison’s two recipes, shaped as one loaf (rather than being divided into two loaves) is a nice fit for this crock. Here’s my risen loaf, ready to go into the oven. When using this crock, it’s not preheated, as Alison directs; instead, the shaped loaf is put into the cold crock to rise and then bake.

If you let the second loaf sit in the fridge, covered, overnight, it will develop a deeper and more complex flavor. You can bake it in the morning and have fresh bread for breakfast without having to get up at 2 a.m. to make the dough from scratch. Simply remove the loaf from the refrigerator and let it sit unrefrigerated for 30 minutes while the skillets are heating up. The loaf doesn’t need to be at room temperature and works just fine if you take it directly from the refrigerator and put it into the very hot skillet and cover immediately.

When the oven is hot, take the shallow skillet out (careful – it will be very hot).


Sprinkle the top of the loaf with flour so it won’t stick, and gently flip it upside down (seam side down) from its bowl into the very hot skillet; try to center it, though it’s difficult.

Quickly score the top of the loaf with a lame, razor, box cutter, or very sharp knife into a pattern you like, making four to five decisive deep slits. You can make a tic-tac-toe pattern, or anything else you desire. I like to make a square with four slits.  These slits will allow the bread to “pop open,” giving it room to rise.


Immediately after scoring your bread (making the slits), put the skillet with the bread into the oven and cover it with the upside down deeper skillet or heated top, to seal moisture inside. Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F, and bake the bread, covered, for 15 minutes.


After 15 minutes, take the top skillet off and let the bread bake, uncovered, for another 15 to 20 minutes, until it’s a deep golden brown. Your bread should have popped open and grown in size. The larger loaf will take a bit longer than the medium loaf, so keep an eye on them for the last 5 minutes.

I like bread with a very dark and “crusty” crust, so after it’s baked, I generally let it sit in the oven, temperature turned off, oven door cracked open, for another 7 minutes before I remove it. This helps create a drier, crunchy crust. For crunchiest crust, remove the bread from the pan and set it on the oven rack prior to this final 7 minutes in the turned-off oven.


Remove your beautiful bread from the oven and let it sit on a bread board or cooling rack to cool.


It’s tempting (and delicious) to eat a piece immediately, so go ahead if you must; but I find the bread’s even better after it sits 15 to 20 minutes, as it settles and the full flavor emerges. I find that artisan bread, especially the crust, reaches its peak about 30 minutes after it’s removed from the oven.

Although the whole process is quite long (about 6 hours, not including making the starter the night before), each stage is very short. Instead of being a slave to the process, I’ve learned that if something comes up, I can stop at any stage and simply cover the dough/loaves, put them into the refrigerator, and resume where I left off by removing the dough/loaves from the refrigerator and letting them sit for 30 minutes while I preheat the oven. It’s not always desirable, but it gives your schedule some flexibility and your bread will still be delicious.

One other trick about bread – no matter what you do, baking bread is messy, so WEAR WHITE!


If you get the “bread bug,” you might want to read more about it. As I said before, the ingredients are simple, but making great artisan bread involves many subtle processes, each of which is important and makes a huge difference in the quality of your bread.

There are millions of books on the subject of bread and baking, but I’ve found the following four books to be the most useful, and have listed them in order of complexity and detail, with the simplest first:

The King Arthur Flour Baker’s Companion:  A wonderful book to get you started, chock full of information on baking, flours, and many great recipes. You can learn to make many different types of bread as well as pies, pastries, brioche, etc.

Baking Artisan Bread, 10 Expert Formulas For Baking Better Breads at Home, by Ciril Hitz:  I like this book because it includes pictures depicting what the bread or dough should look like at different stages. There are pictures of “too little,” “too much,” “just right,” plus recipes for baguettes, ciabatta, pizza dough, bagel dough, and challah, among others, all of which I’ve made with good results.

Bread:  A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes by Jeffrey Hamelman: Jeffrey is the director of King Arthur Flour’s bakery in Vermont. This is the book to read once you want to get serious. It’s a textbook for bread bakers and used in most baking institutes. It’s well written, and provides great information on everything from recipes, history, and techniques, to how to stand so your back won’t hurt when baking. Jeffrey is one of the most famous bakers in the world. I call him the “J.S. Bach of Baking.”

Tartine Bread by Chad Robertson: Tartine is the most famous bread bakery in San Francisco, and Chad is obsessed with baking the perfect bread – his famous Tartine Country Loaf.  I’ve borrowed many of his techniques, and refer to him as the “Chopin of Bread Baking,” as this book is a romance between Chad and bread. The Country Loaf recipe is 26 pages long! It’s a bit hard to follow unless you know the basics, but definitely worth it.

Ed. note: The photos for this blog were taken by three different bakers at three different times, as we each made loaves following this formula. Thus, don’t be confused by different backdrops, different looks to the dough, etc. The recipe can produce varied results, depending on whether or not you use bread flour, and how accurate you are with your measurements. Enjoy this post for what it is – a visual recap of the bread-baking process – rather than a precise guide to making a specific recipe.


Alison May, a member of King Arthur Flour’s board of directors, is an independent consultant working with companies, large and small, in helping develop sustainable and socially responsible enterprises. She’s been honored as one of the 100 most influential business women in the San Francisco ...


  1. Bill_Lundy

    I appreciate seeing the running commentary throughout Alison’s narrative: it’s like being a bystander to a conversation, where I’m picking out things that I can use myself. That appeals to the part of me that tries to reason through the process considered holistically, rather than as a series of discrete steps from which deviation is not desirable. As I read all of it, I considered the various suggestions made by all contributors, and have decided to add some (on a trial basis) to my repertoire, and decided to forgo others, at least for the time being. Thank you for such an intelligent approach to this aspect of bread-baking.

    1. Alison May

      I find baking artisan bread to be nuanced, and full of many subtle “tweaks”, each of which changes something about the bread. Let me know if anything works especially well for you, and please let me know if you have any tricks you can share that I might try.

  2. mary mcmahon

    I don’t know why you all are doing so many tutorials lately, but God Bless You. Mary in Cincinnati

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Y’all asked, and we’re trying our best to answer! Thanks for your enthusiasm for these “lessons”, it’s great to go back to (baking) school! Happy Baking – Irene@KAF

  3. Janice Endo

    Alison May…I always knew you were cool, but now you are over the top! BoD at KAF and cranking out baguettes daily? Enjoyed reading your piece and it’s great to see what you’ve been up to since I last saw you. You rock!

    1. Alison May

      Hi Janice – I hear you became a baking queen after leaving Patagonia. Congratulations. I love working with the good people of King Arthur where the enthusiasm for baking is palpable.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      It is interesting – we hope you give this a try in your home kitchen! Happy Baking – Irene@KAF

  4. cwcdesign

    Recommendations for baking if you don’t have 2 deep skillets or a cloche? It looked like someone used a pie plate – what was used for the top? Would a Dutch oven work or would it be too big? What would happen if you used a half sheet pan, parchment and a pan of water on the bottom shelf of the oven? Just looking for ways I could try this bread. Thanks!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      The great thing about artisan bread is that you can use many vessels for baking – dutch oven, pie plate, baking stone, baking sheet – the secret to getting the shape is the process for shaping that’s so well described in this blog. Enjoy the journey baking in different pans until you find the one that “sings” (shape and process wise) to you! Happy Baking – Irene@KAF

    2. Heather

      I used a stoneware baking pan and a pie plate with water in it. I left the pie plate in the oven through the whole baking time. It worked really well.

    3. Alison May

      I am going to try your suggestions. It is not mandatory bake the bread in a covered container, just easy. I have found that hot steam at the beginning, either by spritzing the bread before you put it in the oven or by putting a small amount of water into a hot pre-heated pie pan placed on the bottom shelf of the oven works well. The hot moist air at the beginning helps create an “oven spring” which is a sudden & rapid increase in the volume of a dough during the first few minutes of baking. This is important, but if you want your bread to be really crusty, it should bake in a moisture free environment for the last 10 minutes or so which can be accomplished by either removing the pan with the water (careful – very hot!), or talking the top off the skillet/container/cloche. For extra crispy crust, let it sit in the oven, heat off, with the door cracked open for an additional 5-8 minutes. For super extra crispy crust, remove completely from the container and let it sit direcly on the rack for 5-8 additional minutes, oven door cracked open, heat turned off.

    4. Jen

      I use a baking stone and I have an old small (5 or 6in) cast iron skillet I preheat and add ice cubes to when I add my loaves. It works nicely for me. And yes, there is a fine layer of rust on the bottom of the cast iron skillet but this is only what it is used for.

  5. ovenbake

    I just made my first KA No Knead Harvest Grain Blend bread today…can’t wait till I can cut it. Thank you for posting this blog! I’m new to baking outside my bread machine, and this step by step with pics is incredibly helpful.

  6. Ed

    You mention that sourdough starter can be used, how does the recipe change if you are going to use the sourdough starter v. the starter described in this guide? Thanks!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Sourdough will give a different flavor profile than using an overnight starter. 1 cup sourdough = 1 cup flour and 1/2 cup water. Adjust the recipe accordingly removing 1 cup flour and 1/2 cup water from the total amounts. I hope this is helpful – or your might consider the recipes written and tested for sourdough – either the Rustic or Extra Tangy. Happy Baking – Irene@KAF

  7. Heather

    I tried this recipe today and it was a winner as far as taste. It is very time intensive, not hands on time, but this is a whole day project so, be prepared. I used active dry yeast rather than instant. For the second addition of yeast, I proofed the 2 tsp of yeast in about 2 tbsp of warm water. I didn’t have a dutch oven I could use so I used a stoneware baker and a pie plate with water under it in the oven to create steam. Everything worked really well and I can’t wait to dig into the second loaf tomorrow.

  8. Irene

    What a great article! I too love the running commentary. It is extremely important to me to have the most minute details so I know I’m on track.

    I have a wonderful cast iron Dutch oven, but if I wanted to steam the entire oven using a different pan, say to make baguettes, how would I do this? Would I use a pie pan – is it big enough? Would I put boiling water in it to start or use room temp water to begin with? Would I put it in the oven several minutes before the bread goes in so the steam has already been created or put it in when the bread goes in?

    So many questions! I have never been clear with this steam stuff. Thanks for the help!

    1. PJ Hamel

      Irene, the best method is to put a cast iron pan into the bottom of the oven as it preheats. At the same time you put the bread into the oven, pour about 1 cup hot water into the pan, and quickly shut the oven door. If you don’t have a cast iron pan, use any metal pan. Hope this clarifies things – PJH

    1. PJ Hamel

      Annie, we’re just getting into technique videos, starting this summer. Hopefully at some point this no-knead bread process will “come to life.” PJH

  9. Julia

    I just want the recipe without the commentary and full page pictures. Is there a simple recipe version. I tried printing it and it said 27 pages. That is rediculous to try to bake from.

    1. PJ Hamel

      Julia, unfortunately there’s no printed recipe for this blog post; it’s more of a guide. Again, unfortunately, the platform the blog is on doesn’t convert to a print version. So I’d suggest copying and pasting the salient parts into a Word doc, and print it that way. Sorry there’s no better answer – PJH

    2. Opti

      I actually came up with a “short” version I could use whenever I make this amazing bread. It’s maybe a little “long” but it travels well 🙂

      I do add more salt than in the original recipe. Just FYI.

      French Boule


      3 ¾ oz AP flour
      ½ cup whole wheat flour
      8 oz of filtered water
      One pinch of yeast

      12 hours later add:

      14 oz of filtered water
      19 oz of bread flour

      ½ hour after that add:

      1 ½ tsp of yeast
      2 tbsp of salt
      1 tsp of olive oil

      Let sit ½ hour

      Every half hour times four:

      Pick up the dough and fold it under itself. Repeat this a few times (4-7) until the dough forms a nice ball.


      Flour a good spacious surface and dump the dough onto it. Fold it in thirds like in envelope and then again half.

      After 15 minutes, repeat.

      Let the dough proof for 1 ½ hours.

      After 1 1/4 hours, preheat the oven to 500 degrees.

      Cook the bread in a covered dish for approximately 20 minutes, uncover and cook for approximately 10 more.

      Let cool for at least ½ an hour but preferably overnight.

  10. Roxie

    I started making Artisan style bread last winter. Same ingredients except half the flour is freshly ground whole white wheat. OMgoodness what a tasty loaf it makes. I use a cast iron dutch oven and lid for a dbl batch and for single loaves, which look way better, I have an old ” Frienship” pottery casserole with glass lid. They both work perfectly. Go to a second hand store and see what you can find. It needs to withstand the 500 degrees though. 🙂

  11. SusanS

    I’ll be trying this method and recipe soon. When I lived in CO 40 years ago I had no problem baking great breads. I moved back to WA 35 years ago and lately have attempted no-knead breads. No matter what I have tried, most are a hockey puck fail. Tasty but fail. My last 2-3 loaves have been from a co-workers sourdough mother. I use KA bread flour, spring water, now proof in warmer and warmer spots in the house and I still don’t get the juicy gluten-y bubbles like you do (in the 4 pictures together above) and my bread dough doesn’t rise. Soooooo, what I haven’t seen elsewhere is, for both yeast and sour dough breads, can I try adding a lot more water than the recipes call for? I live in south central Washington state, so I am in the desert if that makes a difference.

    1. MaryJane Robbins

      Hi Susan,
      Sorry to hear about the troubles. Yes, it is most likely your dry weather that is causing your troubles. Flour absorbs moisture from the air, and when it’s dry, your flour is dry. Try increasing the amount of liquid in your recipe by up to 1/4 cup. You want your no knead dough to be sticky and wet in order to get those big holes. Check out some of the other no knead blogs and you’ll see lots of great photos showing this. ~ MJ

    2. Amy

      Susan, I suspect you’ll never read this note being posted over a year later, but I just had to say that I’d been living and baking in near-desert eastern WA successfully for several years and then moved to an incredibly damp (humidity > 90% many days) climate. I’m just now, two years in, getting my breads to not be honest-to-goodness soggy any more! I’m trying this formula but at about 70% hydration instead of 85%; the water it picks up from the air while resting and being worked will make up for it.
      Thanks for sharing, Amy. Hopefully Susan will pop in some time and see your message of encouragement. ~MJ)

  12. Beth

    I can’t wait to try this bread! I have a new kitchen with a Wolf steam oven. How would you recommend changing the baking process using the steam oven?

    1. PJ Hamel

      Well, you could bake it without the lid on the pan, since your oven will be filled with steam anyway; just make sure to cut the steam off after about 15 minutes or so. Good luck! PJH

  13. Mary Seppi

    Alison! You are so cool. Congratulations on this beautifully written first blog ever!!!
    I’ve had the great luck to have a private class with Alison in her San Francisco kitchen. We gossiped, the breads sang and we sampled the incredible baguettes and fabulous walnut-olive variation to our souls’ content. I walked with Alison down to deliver baguettes to her favorite shopkeepers who smiled broadly when they saw her enter. She is a gentle, generous, teacher who has found yet another calling. Thank you dear Alison.

  14. Carole

    I recently was in Paris and took a baguette baking class. All was generally the same as your method except they had a 100 yr old starter and used ice water and refrigeration and cold utensils?

    1. PJ Hamel

      Carole, there are many, many, MANY paths to great bread. It’s fun traveling down as many as you possibly can… PJH

  15. Steve Pattison

    WOW, thank you. I’ve been casually baking bread for about 15 years and never successful creating bread with large holes in it until now. I was not able to get a good firm thick crust though. I baked in a cloche from KAF for the first 15 minutes and left it in the oven with the door propped open afterwards as instructed but my crust was very soft. Thinking maybe the extra flour on the top when I turned the dough into the cloche may have kept the crust from getting hard? Thank you, I will try again, and again.

    1. PJ Hamel

      Steve, did you take the bread off the cloche and leave it to cool on the oven rack? That would help. Also, you could try taking it out of (off) the cloche when you remove the lid; the more the crust is exposed to hot air, the harder it’ll get. Hope this helps – PJH

  16. Jan Depwe

    Loved your blog with all the hints for making great crusty bread! I have been casually baking bread for a few years and use ~5 ice cubes in an aluminum pie pan (in which I’ve punched small holes) for my water source. Not sure if that qualifies for the steam, but it seems to work …
    Thanks for all the info, can’t wait to try the overnight starter method!

  17. louise

    Your blog was sent to me two days ago and I just had to try it. Been baking bread all winter in our RV with a convection microwave oven (450 is max) and/or my Zo. I’ve been doing the dough in the Zo and finishing in the oven. So I went for the challenge of scratch mixing and it was a stunning success.
    I used 244 gr of 00 Italian flour plus KA bread flour. My only mistake was not enough flour in the towel so it stuck as I turned it into a parchment lined metal cake pan (all I had on the RV) but still had oven spring. I’ll bake my second one today and when I get the towel unstuck, guess I’ll try for another rise in the pan before I bake. Wish I could post a gorgeous picture of my results.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Great news Louise! If you follow us on Facebook we would love to see the photos! Or send them to us in an email. Happy baking! Elisabeth@KAF

  18. joanna strong

    question for you: can you add a sourdough starter to any bread recipe, if so, do you subtract 1 cup of flour and 1/2 cup water or just add more flour?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Yes, you may add your starter (unfed or fed) to just about any recipe. I am not sure I would add it to a tart dough, so you see, not every recipe! Add 1 cup of starter in place of 1 c. of flour and 1/2 c. of water. Enjoy! Elisabeth@KAF

  19. joanna strong

    next question, how do you substitute one type of yeast for another. can you use them interchangeably? I use saf Instant but have come across recipes i’d like to try but use Reg. yeast. What is the ratio of exchange? Thanks for answering all my questions.

    1. PJ Hamel

      Ask away, Joanna – that’s what we’re here for! You can use them interchangeably – no need to make any changes in the amount. The active dry will take a bit longer to get going, but in the long run, it should catch up. Good luck – PJH

  20. SusanS

    I wrote on 3/30/14 asking about adding water to my bread doughs and you, MaryJane Robbins answered back that I could add up to 1/4c of water. (see above) I’ve been making the Rustic Sourdough Bread for the past couple of months. The recipe calls for 1 1/2 cups of water for 5 cups of flour. Each week when I make a batch I’d add more water and I’ve worked my way up to 3 cups of water for the recipe. 2 3/4 C wasn’t even enough!!!! 3 did it!!!!! I now get the bubbly wet dough shown in the photos and the best crumb ever!!! Only “problem” now being is I share the batch with my husband and he stuffs his bread. He thinks the dough is now too wet for his use. Too bad….

  21. Kelly V

    Great bread! I was searching for a good recipe so I can stop buying $8-10 loaves from a local great bakery and still have great crusty bread with those winter soups. Really easy to follow and it is also wonderful for add ins – my daughters favorite is chunks of parmesan and pepperoni but I will be trying some others soon – excellent again and better frankly when made with King Arthur Flour and lets me give a loaf away to friends when I bake.

  22. Caroline S

    If you use a sourdough starter does it have to be fed or can it be unfed? Also, can you use it straight from the fridge or should you let it come to room temp first? Thanks

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      The type of starter used in this recipe is typical of many French and Italian breads. Because it only sits overnight it doesn’t develop a sour flavor, and instead contributes a lovely buttery flavor (from the lactic acid). It will also help develop a nice, open crumb (more holes). You could use a sourdough starter, but it would likely yield very different results. I would recommend trying our sourdough baguette recipe. Barb@KAF

  23. robinmwynn

    Of all the recipes I’ve tried from this site (and I’ve tried and loved a lot of them!) this is the one I keep coming back to. It makes such wonderful bread, and can be made in whatever shape you need it to be. I highly recommend it! Your family will thank you.

  24. Majid

    Alison, I think your recipe rocks. It has saved my wife and I from a big disappointment. You see, after living in the UK for many years, I had almost lost the taste of a good bread. Until lately that we went to Paris for a few days. We were served bread with every meal we ordered and despite the place (bakery, restaurant or cafe) the bread was delicious every time. So after we returned I did not enjoy any type of bread I bought from any store. And believe me I tired all the expensive ones too. Living in a small town doesn’t help either as choices are limited.
    I tried baking homemade breads before but as much as they looked nice they didn’t taste satisfying. So I started searching for artisan bread recipe because I remember seeing the word artisan in bakeries signs in Paris. It is silly I know but sometimes the simplest words are the best clues. Then I found your recipe. Even though I am a novice baker, by following your recipe, I managed to bake a very delicious loaf with full of texture, bubble and most of all the taste. The photos in this page are very helpful to accomplish a perfect bread particularly for an inexperienced bakers like me.
    I make a big mess in the kitchen when I prepare the dough and she normally doesn’t come to the kitchen until I cleaned it up. But despite all of these she asks me to bake for her as she really enjoys the bread from your recipe. The best part is that unlike most breads we can buy from stores, it doesn’t cause her any acid reflux problem which is a big plus point for your recipe.
    I must admit, once I tried your recipe without preparing the starter as I had forgotten to prepare it the night before, but even though the result was a delicious bread.
    So we both thank you for sharing your recipe with us in such a details style.

  25. Sandy M

    I baked again last night and I have to tell you, my bread SINGS! I love this recipe and plan on baking it many more times. Thank you.

  26. Debbie G

    Omg! It’s singing!!! I’ve been making artisan bread, at home, for a couple of years. My family loves the homemade bread, but I had yet to be thrilled..until today. Alison, your details were spot on! Every step was worth the time. Even if my first try was unsuccessful (maybe beginners luck today), your post inspired me to happily continue trying. I made the round loaves and can’t wait to try the baguettes. It’s everything you said it would be AND it sang! This home cook thanks you very much!! 🙂

  27. James

    This bread is amazing! I have been baking this for about a year now every weekend. Recently, my wife was diagnosed with Celiacs Disease and I am now working to find an alternative Gluten Free recipe that can mimic this recipe. I know that is asking a lot since part of the amazing chemistry in this bread occurs with gluten. If anyone has any alternative recipes, I am all ears. Itching to try a tasty new bread.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      James, you’re correct in noting that so much of the magic of breads like this depends on the structure that gluten provides. For best results we recommend following a similar recipe that’s written to be gluten-free. Although we don’t have a recipe quite like this, you may be interested in checking out this recipe. Barb@KAF

  28. Doug Hoover

    Finally, I have reached bread nirvana with this recipe. I take the dough and go through the folding process. Weigh the dough and cut it in half. I will freeze one or even both of the the dough balls until I am ready to use. I let it thaw and rise over night and bake when ready.

    The results have been amazing. I bake my breads in dutch oven which gives me that super crusty outside and soft inside. I love this recipe!

  29. Jeff Giese

    I started the starter last night and planned on making it today. Unfortunately I’m not feeling well, can I somehow save it fo tomorrow? Add more flour, put in fridge, any suggestions? I despise wasting a perfectly good starter/dough.

    1. PJ Hamel

      Sorry you don’t feel well, Jeff – bummer! Just stick that starter in the fridge, and it should be just fine. Let it warm to room temperature tomorrow (or when you use it), OK? Take care — feel better soon! PJH

  30. Aly

    I love this recipe. I am wondering if it’s possible to bake two loaves in the oven at a time? I use a ceramic dutch-oven style bakeware. It’d be great to limit the time my oven has to be turned on, but I don’t know how it would affect the baking.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      If your oven can fit two smaller Dutch ovens, side-by-side, then you’re more than welcome to bake them at the same time. They should both be placed on the same rack to ensure even baking. The length of time they’re in the oven shouldn’t be drastically different than what you’d expect from baking just one loaf alone. If the loaves are less in volume, they’ll finish baking faster. Happy baking! Kye@KAF

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