Which yeast to use: choosing the best type for any recipe

With all of the varieties of yeast out there (let alone brand names), how do you know which yeast to use?

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

Traditional active dry yeast and fast-rising yeast

Active dry yeast (ADY), the stuff your mom may have used, is widely available everywhere. You’ll find it in your supermarket’s cold case in 1/4-ounce packets, three packets to a strip; it’s also available in bulk, in 4-ounce jars. ADY is the tortoise in the tortoise/hare race: while slow to get going, it provides hours of steady growth.

Then there’s fast-rising yeast (a.k.a. highly active yeast) – the hare in the race. Red Star Quick-Rise™ and Fleischmann’s RapidRise® are the two most popular brands. These yeasts purport to work 50% faster than ADY.

Now, here’s an important point: Red Star advises bakers not use their fast-rising yeast for refrigerated or frozen dough – which eliminates no-knead dough as well as many sweet dough recipes, which often call for a long, slow rise in the fridge.

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

Versatile SAF instant yeast

Here’s our favorite yeast: SAF instant yeast, a King Arthur Flour test kitchen staple for decades. SAF gets going much more quickly than ADY, and has just as much staying power.

SAF instant yeast is appropriate for all dough, from your standard sandwich bread with its minimal rising, to multi-day refrigerated no-knead dough, to frozen-dough dinner rolls.

Note: The nomenclature for yeast can be very confusing. Red Star and Fleischmann’s don’t offer “instant yeast” per se – but both call their fast-rising and bread machine yeasts “instant yeast.” We’ve found that SAF instant yeast is not the same as Red Star and Fleischmann’s fast-rising yeasts; so when you see a recipe on this site calling for instant yeast, we’re referring to SAF instant yeast.

Why choose ADY or fast-rising yeast instead of instant?

Instant yeast certainly looks like the way to go. Still, there are times when bakers might choose active dry yeast, or one of the fast-rising yeasts. Why?

Comfort and tradition. Some bakers simply love to use what they’ve always used, or what their mom or grandma used. Carrying on family baking traditions is important, and certainly a valid reason for sticking with your tried-and-true active dry yeast.

Flavor. Many bakers report a difference in flavor between active dry and instant or fast-rising yeast, with ADY lending bread milder, less aggressively “yeasty” taste.

Fear and confusion. “My recipe calls for active dry yeast, so I have to use active dry yeast.”

Not true! It’s easy to use instant yeast in recipes calling for ADY or fast-rising yeast – no fancy conversions needed. Simply use the same amount of instant yeast in your recipe as ADY or fast-rising. Add it right along with your other dry ingredients; there’s no need to dissolve instant yeast in water first.

Let’s put all three yeasts to the test.

How do these three most common yeasts – active dry, fast-rising, and instant – perform against one another?

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

Active dry yeast takes longer to work.

Here we have (l to r) Red Star ADY, Red Star Quick-Rise, and SAF Red instant yeast. I’ve just kneaded the dough, and it’s going through its first rise in mini loaf pans (top).

The Quick-Rise and SAF instant yeasts are about equal in volume after an hour; the ADY is lagging behind (bottom).

Now let’s shape and bake these breads.

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

Here they are shaped and in the pan (top); and 1 hour later, risen.

The ADY is still behind Quick-Rise and SAF instant. SAF (right) has pulled ahead of Quick-Rise just a tad, though you can’t see it from this angle. In fact, the SAF loaf has crowned about 1/4″ over the rim of its pan, so I put it into the oven to bake. Fifteen minutes later, the Quick-Rise loaf is also ready, and goes into the oven.

A full hour after the first loaf went in, the ADY loaf still isn’t fully risen. The point’s been made by now; ADY is slower than both Quick-Rise and SAF instant. So I go ahead and bake it.

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

The finished loaves

Here’s a cross-section of the results. That’s ADY on the left; Quick-Rise in the center, and SAF Red on the right.

The SAF Red and Quick-Rise loaves bake to virtually the same height, but the SAF loaf rises a bit more quickly in the pan than the Quick-Rise.

The ADY loaf is shorter – though, given enough time, it would have risen fully and no doubt produced as tall a loaf as its Quick-Rise and instant competitors.

Flavor-wise, both the Quick-Rise and SAF instant yeast loaves have a distinctly yeasty flavor and aroma, while the ADY loaf’s flavor is more neutral.

The overall winner? SAF instant, by a crumb.

By virtue of its fast, strong rise; and its versatility (standard, no-knead, and refrigerated/frozen doughs), we choose SAF instant.

OK, now that we’ve established SAF instant yeast is the ideal all-around yeast, we have another potential decision to make:

Which SAF yeast to use, Red or Gold?

SAF Red is your best choice for all-around baking, from sandwich loaves to crusty no-knead bread to freeze-and-bake dinner rolls.

SAF Gold is formulated for one specific type of dough: sweet dough. Think Portuguese Sweet Bread, Hawaiian Buns, Panettone, Raisin Challah, and the like.

What about cinnamon rolls or sticky buns, you ask? Well, they’re sweet – but mainly from their topping/filling. The dough for these sweet rolls is often only lightly sweetened, if at all; so they don’t need SAF Gold.

Here’s a rule of thumb: if the weight of the sugar in your recipe is equal to or greater than 10% of the weight of the flour, SAF Gold will hasten the dough’s rise.

Roughly translated to volume, any recipe calling for over 1 tablespoon sugar per cup of flour will benefit from SAF Gold.

But can’t you just use SAF Red, and let everything rise longer?

Yes – but there’s a tradeoff. Most sweet doughs also include eggs, milk, and/or butter. Letting these elements sit at warm room temperature for hours at a time, as the dough rises, can cause them to take on a slightly tangy, fermented flavor; and this flavor can clash with the appealing sweetness of your finished loaf. SAF Gold, with its shorter rising time, prevents this flavor deterioration.

Let’s see what happens when we test Red against Gold in our Hawaiian Buns. With the buns’ sugar/flour ratio climbing above 22%, they’re one sweet candidate for this test!

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

Here are the two doughs just after mixing (top), and 90 minutes later (bottom). That’s SAF Gold on the left, SAF Red on the right.

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

I shape the dough into buns, and let them rise for an hour (bottom).

The SAF Gold buns (left) have risen slightly more than the Red buns; see how the Gold buns are filling more of the pan?

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

And here they are, baked and ready to enjoy.

Which Yeast to Use via @kingarthurflour

SAF Gold wins the sweet dough test.

That’s Gold on the left, Red on the right. In sweeter recipes, Gold produces a higher-rising bun.

So we’ve gotten to the end of our tests, and I’m happy to say SAF instant yeast has validated my long-time faith. For the full range of all my yeast baking, SAF is the choice.

Still, there’s one more reason to choose SAF instant yeast:

The price is right.

Sold in its typical three-packet, 3/4-ounce strip, active dry yeast or fast-rising yeast at the grocery store costs around $40 a pound.

A pound of SAF Red instant yeast – the equivalent of 64 (1/4-ounce) packets – costs $5.95.

Are you worried about using up a pound of yeast? Stored in your freezer, it’ll stay good for at least a year, and probably longer. In fact, though the manufacturer would certainly never recommend it, I’ve used 6-year-old instant yeast (stored in the freezer), and still achieved good results.

SAF gives you the most bang for your buck. Its value, combined with quality, seals the deal for me.

Which yeast to choose – the bottom line:

P.S. For those of you who go WAY back, fresh yeast (cake yeast) was the staple of every bread baker’s kitchen. These days, though, the familiar foil-wrapped cubes are available only in scattered grocery stores. So for the sake of simplicity, I didn’t include fresh yeast in these tests.

Looking for more information on successful yeast-bread baking? See our 5 Quick Tips for High-Rising Yeast Loaves.

PJ Hamel

PJ Hamel grew up in New England, graduated from Brown University, and was a Maine journalist before joining King Arthur Flour in 1990. PJ bakes and writes from her home on Cape Cod, where she enjoys beach-walking, her husband, two dogs, and really good food!


  1. Kris Clark

    Thank you, PJ, for your terrific overview and explanation of yeasts. I’ll use SAF Gold for my Easter sweet bread.

  2. Stan E Malinky

    Hi, I have a hand me down recipe and I am the third generation. It is a roll recipe that I have been baking for 20 years. The past five years or so, I have noticed that the rolls no longer have the yeasty flavor they are known for. I have tried various variations of flour, yeast, water. etc., only to fail trying to develop the flavor.I contacted another family member all the way across the US to ask If he noticed the same problem. His finding were the same as mine. the east flavor can no longer.

    I have contacted yeast providers with no reason why. The original recipe called for King Arthur flour and cake yeast. I was successful in finding cake yeast but still the same problem. I would love to hear what you have to say because I have run across this type of post on many sites.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi there, Stan! That yeasty flavor you’re remembering most often comes from an accelerated rising process. To achieve this flavor we’d suggest using warmer water than you normally would (try about 110°F to 115°F) as well as rising the rolls in a warm spot. You’ll have to keep an eye on them during the process to ensure they don’t overproof too much and collapse during baking but this should be the best route to the flavor you’re remembering. We hope this helps and happy baking! Morgan@KAF

  3. brec

    My Zojirushi bread machine’s recipe book has some recipes that can be made either in the regular course using active dry yeast or the quick course, which takes about an hour less, using rapid-rise yeast. Can I use SAF Instant with the quick course?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Brec, SAF Instant yeast doesn’t work the same way Rapid-Rise Yeast does; it’s more similar to active dry yeast. We recommend using a regular yeast bread setting for best results — your bread will need to go through two rises. Happy bread baking! Kye@KAF

  4. judi raphaeli

    So- Purple SAF is not available from King Arthur; Gold has to be thrown out by expiration date and Red SAF is good for anything that requires yeast. All yeast has to be kept in the freezer to keep active and fresh?
    Did I get it all right?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Judi — you’re close! (There’s a LOT covered in this article.) You’re correct that we don’t carry SAF Purple. Both SAF Red and Gold likely won’t work very well after they’ve passed their best-buy date, no more in one than the other, but keeping them in the freezer will extend their shelf significantly. Yeast can be kept in the pantry or fridge, but it will last longest and stay the freshest if stored in the freezer. We hope this helps! Annabelle@KAF

  5. Bea

    Good morning, well here I am at the yeast Q&A again. I have a container of SAF GOLD expired 2/17 so I can do the test to see if it bubbles and if it does use it. If not I have the red plus every other brand known to man in ADY, rapid or instant. If the gold is no good. I can use the red even though the panettone process is long? Am I right? And I use the same amount as I would the gold? I hate buying the gold to use once a year or so so I’m glad to hear about freezing and still using after the date. I had been discarding yeast that was close to expiration date?? Go figure..now I know..thank you so much!!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Oh no! No worries, Bea, you can definitely use the SAF Red, it will just take longer for your dough to rise. And we’re glad you’ve got the freezing tip under your hat now as that really lengthens the life of yeast. Enjoy your panettone! Annabelle@KAF

    2. Henry Pawlowicz

      I had a 2 pound bag in the freezer for 4 years and just used the last and it is still good.

  6. Pete

    SAF seems to also offer something called “SAF-Instant PREMIUM”, in a PURPLE bag instead of the Red. Does KAF staff or anyone else have any opinions on this yeast? The marketing material claims its more cold tolerant strain of yeast and generally gives 15-30% faster rise. Sounds great but is there a downside to using new fancy Purple instead of regular old Red?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hmm we haven’t tested it with our recipes yet, Pete, but hopefully we’ll get to experiment with it in the future! It sounds intriguing. Annabelle@KAF

  7. MarilynIN

    I use Red Star Platinum. I find it here locally, but it’s spotty at best. If the store where I buy it is out and isn’t going to stock it for a while (it is spotty), I order through Walmart in enough quantity to put into the freezer and have it shipped to the store. No shipping, just swing by and pick it up.

    1. MarilynIN

      When I say spotty, not the performance, which is great, but the local availability. It isn’t at a major store but in a little local market here.

  8. soveery

    So interesting! As you have years of posts here, my question may have been asked before, but it would take me an hour or so to read through them to check. May I ask away? I’m wondering which yeast is it that comes in your bread and Belgian waffle mixes. Thank you!

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Soveery, all of our mixes comes with an instant yeast. The one most similar to what comes with our mixes is SAF Red Instant Yeast. We use it for all kinds of baking with great success. You can find it here on our website. Happy baking! Kye@KAF

  9. Cindy McCampbell

    Hi PJ, I have a question about how to make my sourdough starter. I’m guessing the answer is most likely yes! As you know, to make a starter it requires yeast. Can I use SAF Premium instead of ADY? Thanks in advance for taking the time to answer my question!! 😀

  10. GILBERT Trevino

    lets try this again. i was reading all the comments, and i didn’t see anyone speaking of proofing, which led me to believe everyone is just adding the dry yeast to the flour mixture. when i make my sweet doughs, i proof my yeast first. in regards to the gold, do you proof that at the same temp? i’m still curious is to how the dough would react proofed vs adding dry. also, with ALL my breads, once shaped, i put them in the fridge over night and then take them out in the morning for a long second rise. would the gold benefit from this method?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Thanks for checking, Gilbert. While in days past it was important to “proof” yeast in water before adding it to other ingredients, both active dry and instant yeasts are now porous enough to dissolve when simply added along with the dry ingredients. Dissolving the yeast ahead of time may jump-start the yeast just a bit, making for a slightly quicker rise initially, but the effects are minimal, and it’s no longer seen as a necessary step. We generally prefer to simply add the yeast alongside the other dry ingredients, unless we’re at all unsure about how fresh the yeast is. Same would be true for the SAF Gold yeast, which is best used in sweet breads. As for the rise, most often the goal of a cooler, longer rise is to develop more complex, sour flavor. While the same technique is sometimes used for a heavily enriched dough, as PJ points out in the article, “most sweet doughs also include eggs, milk, and/or butter. Letting these elements sit at warm room temperature for hours at a time, as the dough rises, can cause them to take on a slightly tangy, fermented flavor; and this flavor can clash with the appealing sweetness of your finished loaf. SAF Gold, with its shorter rising time, prevents this flavor deterioration.” So using the SAF Gold and a pro-longed rise, either at room temp or refrigerated, may be a bit counterproductive. Mollie@KAF

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