Using the autolyse method: unleashing the power of the pause

If artisan bread baking is a passion of yours, you’ve no doubt come across the autolyse method (a short rest after combining flour and water) in recipes or baking books. Have you wondered how using the autolyse method might transform your bread baking? Are you uncertain how best to incorporate this powerful pause?

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

What is an autolyse?

An autolyse is the gentle mixing of the flour and water in a bread recipe, followed by a 20 to 60 minute rest period. After the rest, the remaining ingredients are added and kneading begins. This simple pause allows for some rather magical changes to occur in your bread dough. Let’s explore exactly what’s going on during the autolyse, and how it can improve your bread baking.

A brief history of the autolyse method

French scientist and bread expert Prof. Raymond Calvel developed this technique in 1974, in response to what he saw as a deterioration in French bread production.

In the 1950s and ’60s two-speed electric mixers came into use in France, and bakers adopted more aggressive mixing practices. According to Calvel, this resulted in “very white and high in volume” bread — which to his dismay began to gain popularity in France.

This intensive mixing caused the dough to mature more quickly, which meant less fermentation time was required. Unfortunately, reducing fermentation resulted in bread with less flavor and keeping quality.

Excessive mixing also damaged the carotenoid pigments in the flour through over-oxidation. This caused a loss of crumb color (whiter bread) and a reduction in aroma and flavor.

Calvel saw this as a grave degradation of traditional French bread, and sought to bring back the wonderful breads he’d known in his youth.

Why use an autolyse?

Calvel demonstrated that using the autolyse method affects dough development in many positive ways:

  • The flour fully hydrates. This is particularly useful when working with whole-grain flour because the bran softens as it hydrates, reducing its negative effect on gluten development.
  • Gluten bonds begin developing with no effort on the part of the baker, and kneading time is consequently reduced.
  • Carotenoid pigments remain intact, leading to better color, aroma, and flavor.
  • Fermentation proceeds at a slower pace, allowing for full flavor development and better keeping quality.
  • The dough becomes more extensible (stretchy), which allows it to expand easily. This leads to easier shaping, greater loaf volume, a more open crumb structure, and cuts that open more fully.
Using the autolyse method requires no effort and can transform your bread baking. Click To Tweet

What’s not to love?

The science behind the autolyse method

I was trying to explain the autolyse method to my sister, who’s a pathologist, and her eyes lit up: “Autolysis!” In her world this process describes the self-digestion or destruction of tissue by its own enzymes.

As it turns out, this is exactly what’s going on during an autolyse.

Two enzymes that are present in flour — protease and amylase — begin their work during the autolyse:

  • The protease enzymes degrade the protein in the flour, which encourages extensibility.
  • The amylase enzymes turn the flour’s starch into sugars that the yeast can consume.

Proper dough development requires a balance of both extensibility and elasticity. By delaying the addition of yeast, sourdough starter and salt (all of which can have a tightening effect on gluten), the extensibility of the dough has a better chance to develop. Once kneading begins, the dough develops elasticity, which is the quality that allows the dough to retain its shape.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Testing the autolyse method

When I began this project I was convinced it would be easy; how hard could it be to demonstrate the well-documented positive results of using the autolyse method?

Then things got a little messy.

My test loaves didn’t always illustrate the promised dramatic results, and using the autolyse method wasn’t always as easy as I expected.

While I certainly don’t dispute Calvel’s findings, sometimes production baking practices need a little tweaking when it comes to utilizing them in your home baking.

Let’s see what my tests reveal about the best way to add the autolyse method to your bread-baking routine.

Choosing autolyse-friendly recipes

Strictly speaking, an autolyse includes just the flour and water in a bread recipe. Salt tends to tighten gluten, as does the fermentation brought about by the addition of yeast or sourdough starter. Since these ingredients work against the development of extensibility, they are omitted from the autolyse.

However, when a recipe includes a liquid sourdough starter or a preferment, it’s added to the autolyse as well. Without the significant percentage of liquid contained in these starters it would be impossible to properly hydrate the flour during the autolyse.

For testing purposes, I chose recipes that either didn’t include a liquid preferment, or called for a stiff sourdough starter that could be added after the autolyse.

While an autolyse can be added to almost any bread recipe, my rationale is that these recipes will show the purest results when it comes to the effects of adding an autolyse.

Test #1: Artisan Sourdough Bread with a Stiff Starter

This recipe makes one large boule, but I’ll cut it in half and make sourdough demi-baguettes; baguettes make for an easy side-by-side comparison.

For consistency’s sake I’ll use my KitchenAid mixer with the dough hook, and try to keep the mixing and kneading times the same for each dough. My standard mix time will be 3 minutes on the lowest speed (stir). Kneading time will be 2 minutes on speed 2.

The dough is always covered during a rest period.

Here’s what I’ll test with this recipe:

Dough #1, no autolyse or pause: All the ingredients are added at once and immediately mixed and kneaded. Mix/kneading time is 3 minutes on “stir” and 2 minutes on speed 2.

Dough #2, mix and 30-minute pause: A gentle mix of all the ingredients, followed by a 30-minute pause.The dough is then kneaded.

Dough #3, 30-minute autolyse: The flour and water are gently mixed and the dough is allowed to rest for 30 minutes. After the autolyse the salt and sourdough starter are added and the dough is kneaded.

Dough #4, 60-minute autolyse: The same process as the 30-minute autolyse, but with a 60-minute rest.

Dough #1 and dough #2 come together easily, and dough #3 starts out nicely as well. For the autolyse, I simply mix the flour and water together until the flour is fully moistened. I then cover the bowl and let the dough rest for 30 minutes.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

It’s truly miraculous to observe how the dough transforms in 30 short minutes from a rough blob to a smooth and stretchy dough.

Difficulties with incorporation after the autolyse

However, when it comes time to add the stiff starter and salt to dough #3, I run into a small hitch: the starter and dough don’t want to come together.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

I first try ripping the starter into small pieces and sprinkling the salt on top of the dough, but little bits of starter remain intact, even after kneading for 2 minutes on speed 2.

When I mix the 60-minute autolyse for dough #4, I try a different tactic.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

I decide to reserve a small amount of the recipe’s water (20g) to soften the stiff starter prior to adding it (along with the salt) to the dough and kneading. This also proves challenging to mix because the water causes the dough to slide around in the mixer, preventing the hook from engaging.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

It’s necessary to gently mix on the lowest speed, pausing frequently to fold the dough and help it engage with the hook.

While these added precautions work, they definitely take more time. If less required kneading is a positive result of using the autolyse method, struggling to incorporate the starter before you can begin kneading is definitely a drawback.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Test #1 results

With all that extra effort to incorporate the starter properly after the autolyse, I’m a bit disappointed to see so little bang for my buck. The loaves that include an autolyse (#3 and #4) do show greater expansion, but there’s not a dramatic difference.

Dough #1: The mix that received no autolyse or pause produces a slightly smaller baguette, with a more erratic crumb structure than the other test loaves.

Dough #2: The mix and pause method produces the best color, crumb, and scoring.

Dough #3: The 30-minute autolyse yields a robust loaf with a decent crumb, but nothing to write home about.

Dough #4: The 60-minute autolyse produces the largest baguette, but the crumb isn’t as open as #1, #2 or #3.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

The winner of this round is dough #2.

Test #2: French-Style Baguettes

For this recipe I’ll use the same mixing/kneading process as I did in the first test: 3 minutes on “stir” to blend the ingredients, and 2 minutes on speed 2 to knead the dough. The only exception to this will be the intensive mix (Dough #1).

Here’s what I’ll test with this recipe:

Dough #1, intensive mix: Replicating the intensive mixing practices that drove Calvel to develop the autolyse method risks destroying my mixer — don’t try this at home! I mix all the ingredients and then knead for a full 15 minutes on speed 2 in my KitchenAid mixer.

Dough #2, mix and pause: All of the dough ingredients are mixed together and then allowed to rest for 30 minutes. While not quite an autolyse, this is certainly autolyse-inspired. After the pause, the dough is kneaded.

Dough #3, 60-minute autolyse: The flour and water are gently mixed and allowed to rest for 60 minutes. After the rest, the salt and instant yeast are added and the dough is kneaded.

Dough #4, 30-minute autolyse with yeast: The flour, water, and instant yeast are mixed together in the autolyse. After the 30-minute rest, the salt is added and the dough is kneaded.

Dough #5, 30-minute autolyse: No salt or instant yeast are added to the autolyse. After the 30-minute rest, the salt and instant yeast are added and kneading commences.

An unexpected snag

Doughs #1 and #2 come together without incident (my mixer doesn’t die)! But when I get to dough #3, I discover an issue that I hadn’t anticipated.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

I mix the flour and water and allow the dough to rest for 60 minutes.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

After the autolyse, the yeast and salt are added and I knead on speed 2 for 2 minutes.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Uh-oh!

The instant yeast doesn’t dissolve properly when added to the fully hydrated flour. The dough is riddled with undissolved yeast granules at the end of the first rise.

Back to the drawing board.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Test #2-A

This time when I come to dough #3 and dough #5 I reserve a small amount of the water (1 ounce) from the autolyse, to add in along with the instant yeast and salt after the autolyse is complete.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

This method has its own issues. The yeast dissolves nicely; unfortunately, the dough has difficulty accepting the water/yeast/salt mixture: it’s necessary to stop and start the mixer repeatedly to make it happen.

Another option is to add the yeast with the autolyse, as I did with dough #4.  This is what bakeries using instant yeast normally do; but how do the resulting baguettes compare?

Let’s bake them and see.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Test #2-A results

Dough #1: The intensive mix actually turns out better than expected, with a decent crumb structure. However, it’s much more difficult to roll out, and the resulting baguette is small and pale: definite proof that more isn’t better when it comes to kneading bread dough.

Dough #2: The mix and pause method also yields fairly positive results. Good crumb, decent volume, and cuts that open reasonably well.

Dough #3: Wow! The 60-minute autolyse really shines in this test (though the loaf may have been a little over-proofed). Great color, volume, and crumb, along with decent cuts.

Dough #4: The 30-minute autolyse with yeast yields another beautiful baguette. While not quite as big as #3 and #5, it’s next in line for size, and has a very open crumb.

Dough #5: The 30-minute autolyse without salt or yeast is the winner of this round. Beautiful crumb, color, and volume. I even get some ears!

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

The winner!

One final test

Baking 5 rounds of baguettes is just about my limit for one day, so I decide to refrigerate some of the extra baguette dough from test #2-A and shape and bake it the next day.

Using the autolyse method via @kingarthurflour

Dough #1: After refrigeration, the intensive mix once again produces a small, pale baguette. None of the baguettes have as open a crumb structure as the baguettes that were baked the day before, but the interior of this baguette looks particularly tough and ropey.

Dough #2: The mix and pause method yields a reasonably nice baguette, but it’s also paler and smaller than dough #3.

Dough #3: The 60-minute autolyse is the clear winner of this round. It yields the largest baguette, with a great crust color and cuts that open beautifully.

To autolyse or not to autolyse?

One advantage of using an autolyse that I haven’t been able to capture in these photos is the tremendous difference it makes in the feel and workability of the dough. Calvel called French bread made using the autolyse method “more seductive.” I think he was referring to the baked loaves, but dough that’s undergone an autolyse feels more seductive. It has a soft and yielding strength that makes rolling out baguettes a true pleasure. It’s worth giving the autolyse method a try for this reason alone.

Takeaways for using the autolyse method:

  1. When mixing the autolyse be sure that all the flour is fully moistened; dry flour won’t incorporate well later in the process.
  2. Don’t use an autolyse with sourdough rye bread. Because rye flour doesn’t develop gluten the way wheat flour does, and also ferments more quickly, adding an autolyse can cause the dough to deteriorate.
  3. Liquid preferments and starters are always included in the autolyse.
  4. To add instant yeast and/or a stiff sourdough starter after the autolyse is complete, dissolve them in a small amount of water (1 ounce) reserved from the autolyse. Mix gently until the ingredients are fully incorporated before beginning to knead.
  5. Salt is fairly easy to incorporate after the autolyse, so delaying this ingredient isn’t difficult and can have a big impact. Just don’t forget to add it after the autolyse! Sprinkle the salt on top of the autolyse if you’re afraid you’ll forget to add it later.
  6. If you plan to delay adding any ingredients — salt, yeast, and/or starter — measure them out and place them next to the autolyse. This will help prevent a potential disaster!
  7. I wasn’t able to discern a significant difference in crumb color, aroma or flavor in the baguettes that included an autolyse. I suspect those with more sensitive noses and tongues may notice these differences better than I can.
  8. Is a longer autolyse more beneficial than a short one? More experimentation is necessary, but this may well vary from one recipe to the next.
  9. If you find a true autolyse inconvenient, you’ll still see benefits by adding a 30-minute rest between mixing all of the dough ingredients and kneading.

I hope you’ll feel inspired to start using an autolyse in your bread baking.

And let us know how using the autolyse method works for you!

Barbara Alpern
About

Long time professional artisan bread baker, caramel maker and member of our Baker Specialist team, Barb grew up in Ann Arbor, Michigan and has four grown sons. She has baked in Michigan, Maine, Vermont, and Texas (if you count baking cookies for her son's wedding!).

comments

  1. Deb

    As a novice but very enthusiastic bread-maker, I’m grateful to bakers like you who take the (considerable) time to put together such informative posts. I only just learned about autolyse a few days ago and have been digging deep to find out more—your article is the best I’ve come across. Where I live in France, the local bakery is superb, but the satisfaction of making one’s own bread is, well, extremely satisfying. Thank you for your contribution to my knowledge!

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Thanks so much for your kind words, Deb! I totally agree that there’s nothing like making your own bread–even after many years of bread baking there are still skills to learn and challenges to attempt. And being able to put homemade bread on the table always makes me proud!
      Barb

  2. Sonia

    You didn’t mention how the autolyse affected the taste – did all of the loaves taste the same?
    And I’ve been using the autolyse method of just mixing the flour and water, adding the salt, yeast and/or pre-ferment afterwards in my efforts to bake bread from the book “Flour water salt yeast” and have never had a problem getting the ingredients added later to combine. But I do it by hand, I wonder if that makes a difference.

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Hi Sonia, I suspect that a wetter dough (which is typical of the recipes in Ken Forkish’s book) will allow the instant yeast to dissolve more readily, even when added after the autolyse. At the end of the blog I did make a small observation about the taste/aroma of the test breads, which was that I wasn’t able to discern any differences. My nose and tongue are not the most sensitive, however, so younger noses and tongues may notice differences that I was unable to pick up on. Also, the only test that I suspect might have harmed the carotenoid pigments is the intensive mix (Dough #1, Test 2-A). It’s possible that the relatively gentle mixing/kneading practices that we use in home baking is unlikely to cause the same kind of damage Calvel observed in production baking.
      Barb

  3. Muna

    ** Thanks for this interesting test and findings. Been using autolyse for quite some time. First I was using dough mixer : flour and water at RT then 30-1h autolyse . Now no mixer, just gently mixing 75% of cold water with flour and 2 hrs autolyse in the fridge. Doing some S&F meanwhile. I have 3 questions please: 1 – why some recipes ask to add the starter at autolyse ; which I never followed ; and others asking to add it after autolyse? What effect does it have on the fermentation?
    2- when making 100% sourdough wholewheat loaf, does it need 2 hrs autolyse to get a big loaf and best crumb structure ?
    3- with 100% wholewheat, still cant pass the window pane without using the mixer after autolyse. Any tips to consider ?
    Asking cause I noticed that the mixer was used after autolyse step in all the tests . Thanks again

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Hi Muna! Thanks for the great questions! A liquid starter (100% hydration or more) needs to be included in the autolyse because without the significant amount of liquid contained in this type of starter it would be impossible to adequately hydrate the flour during the autolyse. Typically a recipe that includes the starter in the autolyse won’t call for an excessively long autolyse, and overall fermentation time won’t change very much. If I add the starter along with the autolyse, I do try to keep in mind that fermentation has begun at that point. This recipe for Multigrain Sourdough Sandwich Loaf does call for a 2 hour autolyse to improve the extensibility of the dough, but the resulting loaf is not meant to have an open crumb, but rather a moist, dense crumb suitable for sandwiches. I wouldn’t say that all 100% sourdough whole wheat recipes require a 2 hour autolyse; a shorter autolyse might be long enough to impart the same benefits. I rarely worry about achieving a window pane test, especially when working with whole wheat flour, since it is a little more challenged in this regard. Try kneading to a point where the dough feels soft and supple and relatively smooth. If you tug on the dough or hang it in the air, it should hold together well. You don’t need to use a mixer to achieve this level of strength. I used a mixer for my tests simply for consistency’s sake.
      Barb

  4. Michele

    I do something similar, but I add the yeast first. It is the way Julia Child taught me. Since the goal is flour hydration, wouldn’t it be easier this way, since incorporating it after the rest seems to be a problem?

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Michele, yes, I think adding the instant yeast to the autolyse is much easier and works almost as well. This is the how bakeries that use instant yeast apply an autolyse. The theory is that it takes the instant yeast almost as much time to activate as the duration of the autolyse, so the fermentation doesn’t really interfere with enzyme activity during the rest period.
      Barb

  5. Holly Burnham

    So…..just to be clear, and save me from tears, after the rest….I would add my sugar or honey, then salt, then the dissolved yeast?

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Hi Holly, you can add them all at once after the autolyse and the instant yeast will still activate properly as long as you’ve added a little water to dissolve it. If you feel more comfortable adding them one at a time, I’d add the yeast first, and then the sugar/honey and salt.
      Barb

  6. Val Holiday

    I am doing a 25 minute autolyse with William Alexander’s “Fifty Loaves” recipe. It only uses 1/8 tsp of instant yeast and the rest is all sourdough, and hours of risings. You mix salt and 1/8 tsp yeast into it before the autolyse. Shall I try waiting on the salt and yeast?

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Val, I would recommend following the recipe as written. While I’m not familiar with this particular recipe, it sounds like the man has a plan and may have modified the autolyse to include the yeast and salt for a particular reason. It’s always worth following the recipe as written the first time you make it, otherwise you won’t have a basis of comparison.
      Barb

  7. Mike Onufry

    Enjoyed your post. I am a retired engineer now delving into baking. One of the stated reasons for using the autolyze process is flavor enhancing, but this was not mentioned in your analysis. Do you have any comments about flavor differences in any of the various tests?

    Mike O

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Hi Mike, I did include a brief mention about flavor and aroma differences at the end of the blog, which was to say that my nose and tongue are not the most sensitive and I didn’t notice any differences. I think the carotenoid pigments have a fairly subtle influence on flavor and aroma, but those with more acute senses may be able to discern differences better than I was able to. I also think that the only mixing method that would have been likely to damage the carotenoid pigments was Dough #1, the intensive mix, in test #2 (French-Style Baguettes). It may be that our home mixing and kneading practices are not as likely to damage the carotenoid pigments (as compared to to the industrial mixing methods Calvel was responding to). There are plenty of good reasons to keep mixing and kneading times to a minimum and to add an autolyse and folds as a more gentle way of developing dough strength and extensibility, but I don’t think the fear of damaging carotenoid pigments need be a major motivation. I didn’t even notice a difference in crumb color between the intensive mix and the other mixes. I found this part of the testing very interesting, but I think more testing would need to be done to understand the threshold where intensive mixing causes damage to the carotenoid pigments.
      Barb

  8. Karen L.

    What a fascinating piece! I am not really a bread baker, just a wannabe. However, one of my sons is an executive chef and his personal pleasure is pizza. He makes his own pizza dough and has experimented with it a lot, how long it should rest, how far ahead to make the dough, etc. He throws his dough into a hot frying pan (usually cast iron or non-stick), pats it out a bit to fit, adds the toppings, then finishes it off under the broiler. He has made this for us several times and it looks and tastes great, very organic looking! Next time he visits I will be talking to him about autolyse to see what he knows about it although I don’t think he does much if any bread baking on a regular basis. Hmmm, maybe I should give this a go to perfect the process before his next visit so that I can astound him for a change.

    Reply
    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Hi Karen, if your son’s passion is pizza-making he probably has run into this method in the course of his own reading and experimenting. It will be interesting to see what he thinks about the autolyse method, and if he’s found this technique helpful in his pursuit of the perfect pizza! If he hasn’t heard of this method and you have the opportunity to astound him, that would be awesome! I don’t know about you, but I find the occasions when I can astound my grown sons are rare indeed!
      Barb

    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Rae, yes, you can use the autolyse method with almost any bread recipe, but the benefits are especially noticeable when working with sourdough breads because the acidity of the dough tends to work against extensibility. You’ll also notice quite a significant difference in kneading, shaping and baking when you include an autolyse with wholegrain bread recipes.
      Barb

    1. Barbara Alpern, post author

      Great question, Roxana! While there obviously won’t be any effect on gluten development during an autolyse of gluten-free flour and water, it’s possible this sort of pause could be beneficial in other ways. This is pretty uncharted territory as far as I can tell. I would guess, however, that any autolyse should include the xanthan gum, along with the water and gluten-free flour, to assure that this ingredient hydrates properly.
      Barb

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