Winter to summer yeast baking: making a successful transition

Do you ever have trouble with a much-loved yeast recipe suddenly starting to misbehave? Maybe your baguettes, always shaped so nicely, mysteriously fall flat. Or the dough for your favorite weekly sandwich bread, usually so easy to knead, is suddenly unbearably sticky. Plus your shaped loaf rises in what seems like just half the time. Transitioning from winter to summer yeast baking can be tough; what’s going on?

Simple: it’s the weather. Namely, increased heat and humidity.

Winter to Summer Yeast Baking via @kingarthurflour

Flour and yeast, the heart and soul of bread baking, are both affected by your kitchen’s micro-climate. Yeast loves warmth. The hotter it is, the more quickly yeast grows (until it experiences “thermal death” at around 140°F).

Thus dough made on a hot summer day naturally rises more quickly than dough made in the dead of winter, when your kitchen is probably a lot cooler.

Summer's heat and humidity can make a normally reliable yeast recipe problematic. Find out how to cope. Click To Tweet

As for flour, it can act like a sponge, absorbing moisture from humid air in the summer (and drying out in the dead of winter). So flour is usually “wetter” in the summer and “drier” in the winter. If you don’t reduce the liquid in your recipe in summertime, you may end up with yeast dough that’s too soft and sticky. Dough can over-rise and then fall in the loaf pan; or your shaped loaf might flatten out (rather than rise) on the baking sheet.

How do you successfully transition from winter to summer yeast baking? By understanding heat and humidity, and how they affect yeast dough.

Identify your optimum dough texture, then aim for consistency season to season

Know what the dough for any particular recipe should look and feel like. Is it dry, stiff, bagel dough, super-sticky ciabatta dough — or easy-to-handle sandwich bread dough? Whatever the dough consistency is for any particular recipe (and most recipe writers will clue you in), adjust the ratio of liquid to flour to attain that result.

Let’s look at an example.

Winter to Summer Yeast Baking via @kingarthurflour

Here’s some dough for Gruyère-Stuffed Crusty Loaves that I made and photographed last January. Notice it’s sticking to the sides of the bowl in spots, but also starting to mound up and form a ball. For this particular recipe that’s the consistency I want: quite soft, yet not annoyingly sticky.

Winter to Summer Yeast Baking via @kingarthurflour

And here’s that same recipe’s dough made in June. It’s sticking to the bowl all around, with no sign of forming a ball.

Winter to Summer Yeast Baking via @kingarthurflour

Finally, here’s that same recipe made in June with the liquid reduced by 10%, in order to make a stiffer, more January-like dough.

Winter to Summer Yeast Baking via @kingarthurflour

On the left, January’s dough; on the right, June’s dough. Very similar, right? In order to get the same great Gruyère loaves in June that I get in January, I make sure June’s dough looks and feels like January’s dough.

How to adjust dough consistency by reducing liquid

If you suddenly notice your yeast doughs seem to be stickier and softer than normal, it’s probably the result of hot, humid weather. To get your dough back to normal, reduce the amount of liquid in the recipe — typically by about 10%, in my experience.

Naturally, you’ll have to experiment with this; everyone’s kitchen climate is different. But if you have yeast recipes you make over and over again, and the dough always seems much stickier in the summer, it’s worth it to figure out just how much you need to reduce the amount of liquid to get back to your optimal dough consistency.

But wait a minute. Isn’t it easier simply to make the recipe as is, and increase the flour if your dough ends up too wet?

It would be indeed. But adding more flour to your recipe negatively affects the balance between flour and the remaining dough ingredients: yeast, salt, sugar, butter… While it’s easier to correct a hydration mistake by throwing flour at it, it’s actually better for your finished loaf to not make that mistake in the first place.

That’s how to deal with humidity: by reducing the liquid in your summertime recipe by up to 10%.

Now what about heat?


Desired Dough Temperature via @kingarthurflour

For best flavor and texture, control the temperature of your dough

Pay attention to how warm your kitchen is. Yeast grows fastest in temperatures in the 90s. But the “sweet spot” for dough, optimizing both yeast growth and the production of flavor-adding organic acids, is 75°F to 78°F.

So for best texture and flavor in your finished loaf, try to keep your rising dough’s temperature in the high 70s. Which means if it’s late June and your kitchen is already 86°F, you’ll want to start by lowering the temperature of whatever liquid is called for in your recipe.

This process — adjusting liquid temperature to attain a specific dough temperature — is followed by professional bakers every day; you can read more about it in our Desired Dough Temperature blog post. Just remember: the hotter your kitchen, the cooler the liquid in your recipe; and conversely, the colder your kitchen, the warmer the liquid.

Winter to Summer Yeast Baking via @kingarthurflour

Winter to summer yeast baking: the takeaways

  • The change in heat and humidity in your home from winter to summer can affect how your yeast loaves and rolls turn out.
  • Identify the optimal dough consistency for any particular recipe, then adjust the liquid in the recipe seasonally to attain that consistency.
  • Try to keep the temperature of your rising dough around 75°F to 78°F. In summer, that may mean using colder liquid than normal. For more on this, see our blog post on Desired Dough Temperature.

As summer settles in, along with its heat and humidity, try a yeast recipe you bake year-round and see if the dough seems stickier than it did last winter. If so — you know what to do!

PJ Hamel

PJ Hamel grew up in New England, graduated from Brown University, and was a Maine journalist before joining King Arthur Flour in 1990. PJ bakes and writes from her home on Cape Cod, where she enjoys beach-walking, her husband, two dogs, and really good food!


    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Russell, that’s a good though! Unfortunately, as soon as you take it out to bake, it will proceed to suck all that moisture from the air, regardless of the conditions in your airtight container. It’s a good idea to store your flour that way for other reasons, though, as it will prevent your flour from absorbing funky odors and keep moths and other pests at bay. Happy baking! Kat@KAF

  1. Brett Bowlin

    Great information. Just curious, what are your recipes written for? Summer, Winter or Optimal? I just made y’alls Rustic French Bread and it is already in the 90’s here. For consistency’s sake, I always try to proof in the oven with just the light on and that seems to help quite a bit.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Brett, since we’re developing recipes all year round, it will really vary! But with the extensive amount of testing that goes on for each recipe, there will usually be a range of humidity levels throughout the process, so they tend to end up a bit in the middle. Kat@KAF

  2. Sammy's kneads

    Thank you for the post, reading this article has been so helpful to understand my sourdough recipe problem in summer..

  3. Vicky

    I live in Costa Rica at 6000’. It is extremely humid here but chilly. I find that typical adjustments for high altitude baking don’t work for me because they assume less humidity at altitude. I have been suspecting that my flour carries extra water because of the humidity. Is there a formula for figuring out what the percentage of excess water is. If I weigh a cup of my flour and figure out how much heavier it is than “normal” flour (120 gm/cup?) would it tell me by what percentage I should reduce my liquid. Is this for all doughs, not just yeast doughs?

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Vicky, we appreciate your desire to be super precise and use a formula to figure out how to alter your yeast dough. However, there’s just too many variables to pin it down to such an exact science. The weight of 1 cup of flour depends primarily on how you get the flour into the cup — do you scoop straight from the bag of flour? Do you fluff, sprinkle, and then sweep it level? If you know you’re baking in a relatively humid environment, you might want to start with the ratios we use in this post here: reduce the liquid by 10% initially and see how you like the results. If you find that dough is a bit too stiff, you can note that and try a lesser reduction next time (say, 8%). You’ll start to narrow in on just how much you should reduce the liquid by the more often you bake and take notice of this adjustment. We’re guessing you’ll need to hold back about 5 to 10% based on experience. We hope this helps and we wish you good luck! Kye@KAF

  4. Daniel West

    In this day and age, most homes have a humidity sensor at the thermostat. Is there a guide based on specific humidty measurements? Say 20% humidity versus 50% etc. and how much the amount of liquid would change? Just curious. And thank you for all that you guys do. Your website has become my home for all things baking, and I am on it a lot.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      We’re very happy to be a helpful baking resource, Daniel! We’re quite jealous of your humidity control — that would be awfully handy this summer! There isn’t a specific ideal percentage that comes to mind, but if it helps, bread proofs at temperatures between 75°F and 85°F, usually around 75% humidity or higher. So for your home, to not have a lot of extra moisture absorption from the air in your flour, you’ll want to be below that 75% mark. Feel free to experiment with a few batches, testing to see how the dough behaves at different humidity levels. Annabelle@KAF

  5. Debbie Thompson

    We have been having our bread fall after it is in the oven. It does what one would expect and raises and once it gets in theoven and begins to turn brown, it falls and ends up with a crater in the middle. Mom who bakes every week with home ground flour has never had this happen before, although she did switch from shortening to margarine. Could the water content be too much for the yeast? or for some reason her flour not making the right structure. She is kneading the same and dough feels “normal” when put into theoven. Do you have any idea why it would fall once it is baked? The loaf appears to have great flavor and is edible, just not pretty like we expect.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Debbie! Thankfully this is a quick fix. It’s collapsing because it’s over-rising. The gluten gets all tuckered out so when it hits the heat of the oven it doesn’t have the strength to hold its final rise. Check out our blog post on Over-Proofed Dough for some helpful visual cues to know if dough has over-risen and needs to be punched down and reshaped. Shortening up the rising times should get your mom’s bread right back on track. Annabelle@KAF

  6. janet

    have been having so much trouble with my staple sourdough recipe, thank you for writing the article i didnt know i needed [so dearly]! Will try these pointers my next bake! Thanks PJ!

    1. PJ Hamel, post author

      Janet, good luck – hope these tips whip your sourdough back into shape! 🙂 PJH@KAF

  7. Alex

    Thank you for another science article. I use a B&T proofer in the winter and it’s a game changer. Summers are harder. It feels as if the more you mix the harder it is for the gluten to form. Your tips help get the dough with the correct feel, but the issue of controlling the rate of fermentation (esp. after shaping) still remains. I often joke I need a wine fridge to use as a summer proofer. I’ve looked into what people have done in the centuries before the modern climate-regulating technology to combat the summer heat. One particular technique was fascinating: dropping the dough (wrapped in cloth) into the river for the bulk proofing time. It works well for brioche, the high fat % keeps the dough from absorbing any more liquid.

  8. Sara

    Good article. the Humidity doesn’t bother us year round. Some times I with it did. I was always told that it had to be hot outside, to get bread dough to rise, but have found that is not the case. I didn’t know about the temperature of the dough though. I’ll have to keep that in mind. I mostly make dough by feel. I like kneading dough. It’s therapeutic. I usually pan it when it is double in size and don’t pay attention much, to the time.


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