Topping bread dough: How to add texture, flavor, and nutrition with seeds and grains

Topping bread dough with seeds and grains is a simple and effective way to increase the nutrition, flavor, and texture in a baked loaf of bread. Most of us have experimented with mixing seeds, nuts, dried fruit, and even other grains into bread dough. However, adding the ingredients to the exterior is a surefire way to develop even more crunch, plus the depth of flavor that comes only as the toppings are toasted fresh. And these toppings can pack loads of flavor.

Applying the toppings in a single, even layer on the outside of your shaped dough can be tricky. After all, the last thing we want is to mangle the dough we just spent the good part of a day coaxing into a beautiful shape. In this post we’ll take a look at a few approaches to easily coating a shaped boule (round) and batard (oblong). These methods will not only keep your workspace clean but will also help you keep your dough structure intact.

Let’s first take a look at a few seeds and grains we can use to bring additional flavor to your bread.

Choosing seeds and grains

There are many ingredients we can use for topping bread dough, but there’s one thing you need to keep in mind. Whatever topping you choose, it will be toasted in the oven as your dough is baked. Therefore, there’s no need to toast seeds or grains before using them; they’ll be just right by the time your bread is fully baked. If you toast them ahead of time they might be overly done, or even burned, by the end of baking.

Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflour

When used as a topping, the rich, nutty flavor of black sesame seeds is amplified during baking, adding complexity in an unexpected and delicious way. There’s also striking visual contrast between the exposed brown crust and jet-black seeds.

In addition to black sesame, one of my favorites is the humble rolled oat. When you bake bread topped with oats, they’re toasted a dark brown and become a crunchy minefield on the crust. This added texture, coupled with their nutty flavor, would be absent had the oats been mixed into the dough directly, where they’d become soft and almost imperceptible.

Whole flaxseed is another winner. While it can have a strong flavor for some, especially when toasted on the exterior, I find it complements a mostly white loaf of bread quite well. Not only is the taste welcome, but flaxseed contains significant amounts of essential fatty acids, antioxidants, and fiber.

If you’re looking for a more rustic appearance with a crunchy texture, raw wheat bran is a great choice. I love using it on the exterior of a batard, as it contrasts nicely with the delicate appearance of a single score spanning the length of the oblong loaf. Similar to flaxseed, wheat bran is rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids, and also in dietary minerals and other vitamins.

Now, let’s take a look at the first, most approachable way to top our bread dough.

Add loads of flavor to your baked bread with healthy and flavorful seed and grain toppings. Click To Tweet

Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflour

Topping bread dough: Roll dough on a towel

A straightforward, and my most used, method to top the outside of a loaf is to spread the ingredients on a towel in a thin layer. After you shape your dough, invert it onto the toppings so the good side (the smooth side opposite the seam) is facing down and the seam is facing up.Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflourAs shown above, use your hands to rock the dough around to ensure the sides are well covered. When sufficiently coated, gently scoop up and transfer the dough to the final proofing basket.Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflourIf the dough is sufficiently moist, the toppings will stick and you’ll get an even layer on the outside of the dough. However, what can we do if the toppings just won’t cling to the outside of the dough?Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflour

In the image above, and result below, I used raw wheat bran as a topping for the batard.

If needed, you can moisten the exterior of your dough by spritzing the shaped dough with a spray bottle after it’s shaped. Once moist, proceed with rolling the dough on the towel with toppings. While this approach works, it can also make the rest of your workspace somewhat wet.

Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflour

Wheat germ adds a subtle, grainy finish.

Another approach (above) is to lay a damp towel next to your towel with toppings. After you shape your dough, transfer it to the wet towel first (images in the top row, above), then roll it on the towel with toppings (lower-left image, above). Finally, place the dough in the proofing basket for its final rise.

Topping bread dough: Filled basket or bowl

Using a large bowl or basket filled with toppings has a number of benefits. First, it helps you keep your work surface clean, as the toppings are contained. Second, your toppings can be left in the bowl if it’s a commonly used topping or you have many loaves to top. Finally, you can easily combine a mixture of seeds and grains directly in the bowl. For example, you could mix black sesame and flax, or even pumpkin seeds and flax.

Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflour

Above, I’m using a large 10″ diameter proofing basket to hold the oats used as the topper. A large kitchen mixing bowl will also work well. I’m using an 8″ round basket to proof my dough, so the larger 10″ basket offers plenty of room for the topping process.

The procedure is the same: shape your dough, scoop it up, and lay it inside the larger basket with toppings good-side down (seam up). Use your hands to rock the loaf around, coaxing some of the toppings up onto the sides if necessary. Then gently transfer the topped dough to the prepared proofing basket for its final rise.

Topping bread dough: Sandwich loaves

Using toppings on sandwich loaves is a great way to add some variety to bread you might bake often. My weekly sourdough sandwich bread is a regular family favorite. I rotate toppings on this bread between oats, flaxseed, sesame, and sometimes pumpkin seeds. It’s a great way to sneak some added nutrition into even the most discerning of critics (in my case, my kids!)Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflour

I use two methods for topping a sandwich loaf. The first is to roll the shaped dough on a towel as shown above. An alternative is to place the dough into the pan and then sprinkle them on top. Rolling on a towel spreads them in a more uniform distribution, but a sprinkle after the dough is in the pan couldn’t be easier.

We typically shape sandwich loaves as a long tube to fit a rectangular pan. Therefore, I find using my bench knife and free hand an easy way to transport the dough.

First, scoop up the dough and transfer it to your towel with toppings. Then, rock it back and forth to pick up a thin layer of toppings. Finally, transfer the dough to the pan seam-side down.

Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflourEffectively scoring around obstacles

Scoring can be challenging when coarse, crunchy toppings provide obstacles for your lame (blade or knife). As I mentioned in my post on scoring bread dough, a straight or curved lame can get snagged on larger toppings.

A workaround for this is to use a pair of common kitchen scissors to score the bread. Using scissors, we can cut through seeds and grain without resistance, encouraging a beautiful zig-zag pattern as the bread bakes. The flax-topped boule below shows the result of a scissors score.Topping Bread Dough via @kingarthurflourThis post only begins to scratch the surface of topping bread dough. There are so many seeds and grains that work well as bread toppers. A few more of my favorites include raw sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, amaranth, millet, and even flaked barley.

With the above techniques, and perhaps some of these toppings as new inspiration, experiment and have fun!

Maurizio Leo

Maurizio is an engineer-turned-baker who bakes from his home kitchen in Albuquerque, NM. He bakes, writes and photographs for his blog, The Perfect Loaf, which focuses on naturally leavened sourdough bread. Maurizio's passion for baking ensures his hands are in dough just about every day.


  1. ann

    Hi!– you mentioned it’s OK to moisten/spritz the loaf top to get the seed toppings to stick, Before the loaf gets its last “rise”– but then at what point, or in what order, should i put my egg-yolk wash on the loaf??

    I’ve been making both sweet and savoury no-knead breads, with different types of toppings for each type. In this recipe, the bread rises for 1 hour, then is folded-over & shaped into a ball, & then the dough-ball is left to rest another 15 minutes on top of pre-heated oven for a 2nd- “quick-rise”, & then goes straight into 450 degree oven.

    So far, I’ve been putting the Egg-wash on & sprinkling with sesame/poppy seeds last thing, Just before popping in oven. And yes, the small seeds do not burn during the 35 minute bake-time. However, i’d also like to add toppings that Do burn in 35 mins. at 450– things like chopped nuts, pumpkin seeds, crumbled bacon bits, etc. So I’ve been taking those breads out at 30 mins, giving them a 2nd light egg-wash, & then sprinkling on the other items. But then the crust isn’t quite as crispy!

    So can you advise me on the best way/order/timing to do this??– thank you! (&i really Love this King Arthur site– very informative for a novice baker like me!).

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Ann! If you’re seeding the loaf, you won’t really be able to egg wash it after that step, so you’ll want to either spritz the dough with water and add the seeds and skip the egg wash altogether, or, use the egg wash instead of the water and put the seeds right onto the egg wash. Per the baking, it may be easiest to cover the loaf with foil once your seeds or nuts have reached the color you want them to have. This is less likely to cause your loaf to lose any of its crispness. Annabelle@KAF

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Hi Mae. Most machines will mention the addition of seeds somewhere in their manual, but that’s more about putting seeds inside your loaf. To just add them to the outside, you’ll simply pull the dough out of the machine once it’s had its first rise and the dough has been deflated, leave the machine as is, quickly shape and use the methods shown here to adhere the seeds on the outside, and plop the loaf back into the machine for its final rise. Annabelle@KAF

  2. Marliss

    I like the towel idea for topping breads and will certainly try it. Thanks!

    While whole flax seed might provide nice crunch and make for a pretty presentation on top, just remember that the human digestive system cannot break down flax seed in order to derive nutrients from it. If you are seeking the nutritional advantage, then use flax meal.

  3. Debbi

    Kate/thank you for asking the question, I was thinking the same thing. Thank you King Arthur for the answer. Recently baked your carrot bread. It was yum.

  4. Kate

    Question — after rolling dough in seeds on the towel — how to put it in the bowl? Seeds go down into the bottom of the bowl (that’s what picture looks like to me) or flip it over? Just confused by directions/pictures and would love a clarification. Thank you.

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Either way, Kate! You can either let your dough have its final rise, covered in seeds and seed-side down in your basket before flipping it out to bake, or, after covering it in seeds, put it in or on whatever pan you plan to bake it with, seeds side up, for its final rise. Annabelle@KAF

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