How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong: a surefire path to softer bread and rolls

You love your grandma’s homemade sandwich bread recipe, but wish it was just a bit more tender and less crumbly. You’ve found a recipe online for cinnamon rolls but are bummed at how quickly they harden up and become dry once they’re out of the oven. Want to make your favorite yeast bread and rolls reliably soft and tender? Tangzhong is the solution.

Tangzhong, an Asian technique for making soft, fluffy yeast bread, involves cooking a portion of the flour and liquid in the recipe into a thick slurry prior to adding the remaining ingredients.

This pre-cooking accomplishes two positive things: it makes bread or rolls softer and more tender, and extends their shelf life. For the science behind this, read our Introduction to tangzhong.

Tangzhong: the best thing to happen to soft bread and rolls since... well, since sliced bread. Click To Tweet

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

If you’ve tried our Japanese Milk Bread Rolls or Soft Cinnamon Rolls, you know how deliciously tender they are. And you’ve probably thought about trying tangzhong with some of your own favorite yeast recipes. Softer, moister dinner rolls? Nothing wrong with that.

How to build tangzhong into your favorite recipes

So how, exactly, do you convert a standard yeast bread recipe to use tangzhong?

Thoughtfully.

Start by managing your expectations. Do you really want to pair tangzhong (soft, tender bread) with crusty baguettes or chewy bagels? That would be like making potato chips in a steamer: it goes against the nature of the beast.

It’s important to choose an appropriate recipe: a yeast bread that’s inherently soft, tender, and light. Be it a white sandwich loaf or buttery dinner rolls, tangzhong will enhance bread’s texture, and keep it fresher longer.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

It all starts with hydration

Once you’ve chosen a recipe, you need to determine its hydration: the percentage of water (or other liquid) compared to flour, by weight. A dough’s hydration determines how stiff or soft it’ll be, and also influences how vigorously it rises. Finished loaves with low hydration are usually dense and dry; those with higher hydration, soft and moist.

To take a simple example, a recipe that includes 75g of water and 100g of flour has a hydration of 75%. Or here’s an example in American weights: a recipe using 1 cup water (8 ounces) and 3 cups flour (12 3/4 ounces) has a hydration of 63% (8 divided by 12 3/4).

Don’t have a scale? I highly recommend you acquire one, because trying the tangzhong technique without a scale requires quite a lot of extra effort converting volume to weight.

And by the way, if you’re following an older recipe that most likely doesn’t include ingredient weights, see our handy ingredients weight chart.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

The typical sandwich bread or dinner roll recipe (like these Golden Pull-Apart Butter Buns) has a hydration level of around 60% to 65%.

But when you’re using the tangzhong method, you want your recipe’s hydration to be about 75%.

Why? Because when using tangzhong, some of the liquid in the dough is “trapped” by the pre-cooked slurry (the tangzhong), and thus plays no part in the dough’s texture; as far as hydration is concerned, it’s as if that liquid isn’t even there.

Let’s say your original recipe’s hydration is 60%. When you transfer some of its liquid to the tangzhong, the resulting dough will behave as if its hydration is much lower.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

The dough will be stiff and dry, which can inhibit its rise and lead to dense, heavy bread.

So in order to wind up with dough that’s as soft and smooth as the original, you need to add more liquid initially.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

Test case: Our Favorite Sandwich Bread

Let’s convert this popular recipe to use tangzhong and see how it goes.

1 cup (227g) milk
2 tablespoons (28g) butter
2 teaspoons instant yeast
2 tablespoons (25g) sugar
1 1/4 teaspoons salt
3 cups (361g) King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour

What’s this dough’s hydration? 227g (weight of milk) divided by 361g (weight of flour) = 63% hydration.

But remember, in order to use tangzhong you want your hydration to be 75%: the liquid should equal 75% of the weight of the flour.

Do your arithmetic: 361g x .75 = 271g. So you want the amount of milk in the recipe to be 271g, not 227g. Result? You’ll add 44g additional milk to your recipe.

Making the dough

Let’s see how this works. I’ll make the recipe three ways:

(A), as written, with a hydration of 63%;
(B), using tangzhong without increasing the recipe’s hydration to 75%;
(C), using tangzhong after increasing the recipe’s hydration to 75% by adding 44g milk.

First I make the tangzhong slurry, the cooked mixture of flour and liquid. A standard slurry uses between 5% and 10% of the flour in the recipe and is composed of one part flour to five parts liquid (by weight).

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

This slurry was made in a saucepan, but it’s quickly and easily done in a microwave as well.

I’ve now made this standard slurry often enough that this is what I use for any yeast recipe calling for between 3 and 4 cups of flour: 3 tablespoons (23g) of the flour in the recipe + 1/2 cup (113g) of the liquid.

Remember, you’re using flour and liquid from the recipe, not adding extra flour and liquid! Take that into account when you’re measuring out the remaining flour and liquid for the dough.

For each of the test loaves using the slurry (B and C), I combine 23g of the recipe’s flour with 115g of the recipe’s milk. I cook the mixture over medium heat until it thickens, and put it into the mixing bowl to cool down a bit while I assemble the other ingredients.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

Next, I mix and knead the three doughs. (A), the control, is soft and smooth; (B), with the slurry but without any added milk, stiff and gnarly; and (C), with the slurry and added milk, very similar to (A), perhaps a bit softer.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

Rising and baking

I let the doughs rise, then shape them into loaves and place each in an unlidded 9″ pain de mie pan (my loaf pan of choice). I let the loaves rise, then bake them.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

Look at the difference! (A), the original recipe, and (C), the added milk/slurry recipe, (C), rise beautifully. (B), the recipe using the slurry but without any added milk, rises much less.

It’s impossible to photograph texture and moistness, but right out of the oven (C) is slightly moister and more tender than the original loaf (A). After a few days, (C), the loaf with the slurry, is still nice and fresh; while the original loaf is definitely showing signs of staleness.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

Conclusion: 75% hydration + tangzhong is a winner

Bottom line: By bringing your favorite sandwich bread or dinner roll recipe to 75% hydration and then using tangzhong in the dough, you’ll make bread that’s softer, lighter, more tender, and with longer shelf life than the original.

Extra credit: determining water content

Once you feel comfortable with the basics of tangzhong, you can try fine-tuning your hydration math. While water is obviously 100% water, there may be other ingredients in your dough that are adding to its hydration: for instance, eggs or honey.

This fine-tuning is potentially only necessary in recipes that use a lot of butter and/or eggs, like brioche; or recipes with a significant amount of liquid sweetener.

Truthfully, most of my colleagues here at King Arthur consider simply the main liquid and flour when assessing a recipe’s hydration. Because almost all of the time, that level of simplicity is fine: If your recipe includes just 2 tablespoons of butter, its minuscule water content isn’t going to make or break your bread. Still, once you’ve got the calculator out, it’s fun to take this extra step towards accuracy.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflourHow to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

If you want to drill down with hydration, here’s a list of common yeast bread ingredients and their percentage of water:

Milk: 87% water
Large eggs: 74% water (1 large shelled egg weighs 50g)
Liquid sweeteners (e.g., honey): 17% water
American-style butter: 16% water
Vegetable oil: 0% water (100% fat)

Use the information above to calculate how many grams of water are in any of these “rogue” ingredients in your recipe. Then add them to the total grams of the main liquid before calculating hydration.

How to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflourHow to convert a bread recipe to tangzhong via @kingarthurflour

A final note on hydration

A great variety of factors come into play when you’re baking yeast bread, and some of these affect hydration. Keep the following in mind as you experiment with tangzhong:

Mashed potatoes or other mashed fruits/vegetables (pumpkin, squash) can affect dough’s hydration. There’s no way to judge their effect ahead of time; it’s best to add them, then adjust dough’s consistency with additional flour if necessary.

Hot/humid weather increases flour’s moisture content; cold, dry weather makes flour drier. You’ll typically use a bit less liquid in yeast recipes in summer, a bit more in winter; see our blog post, Winter to summer yeast baking.

Sourdough starter can be thick and viscous, quite thin, or anything in between. As with mashed vegetables, adjust the mixed dough’s consistency as needed.

Have you tried baking yeast bread or rolls using the tangzhong technique yet? If so, how did you like the results? Please add your thoughts in comments, below.

For more on tangzhong:
Introduction to tangzhong: an intriguing technique for softer yeast bread and rolls

PJ Hamel
About

PJ Hamel grew up in New England, graduated from Brown University, and was a Maine journalist before joining King Arthur Flour in 1990. PJ bakes and writes from her home on Cape Cod, where she enjoys beach-walking, her husband, two dogs, and really good food!

comments

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      Our bakers are excited to explore this topic more thoroughly in a future post on our blog, Lenora. Without having tested it at this point, we’ll say that we think it should work well since tangzhong hydrates the starches to make baked goods super moist and tender. Since gluten-free flours have high amounts of starch, we think it could work fabulously. We’ll be able to report more thoroughly on this topic soon, but if you decide to explore this in the short term, we hope you’ll share your results with us. Happy GF baking! Kye@KAF

    2. Gene

      My cinnamon rolls were always great the first day; but you know the rest of that story. Then I tried your “soft” rolls with the tangzhong … still great by fourth day and the second half still good after frozen for two weeks.

      Fast forward to my gluten free granddaughter. I’ve been baking bread for her since her mother’s store bought was so … store bought. Incorporated the tangzhong and it made an even better loaf. Won’t say it’s better thank my potato bread; but she loves it. Don’tknow if that will work in every case; but try it.

  1. Lydia

    It would be nice to hear your thoughts on the conversion of gluten-free bread recipes. I do understand that there are many flour blends and this will impact moisture. However, for those of us having to master baking with alternatives that are frequently deficient, this sounds like a possibility.

    Reply
    1. PJ Hamel, post author

      Lydia, I’ll be trying this with gluten-free bread recipes in the near future; gluten-free and whole grains are the subject of my next tangzhong post, so stay tuned — PJH@KAF

  2. Dee Dee

    Thank y’all so much for the thoughtful well composed post about hydration in baking with yeast. I have baked with yeast for 46 years and your post is the first one that completely explained in detail the formulas so I could fully understand the process. I had the concept and had used the method using a slurry, but didn’t really UNDERSTAND the formulas! Kudos, hats off and applause for one of the best blog posts EVER.

    Reply
  3. zeenat

    I HAD MADE SOME CHOUX PASTRY ..AND HAD SOME DOUGH LEFT OVER…SO INSTEAD OF TANGZHONG I USED THE CHOUX PASTRY IN MY BREAD DOUGH….THE RESULTS WERE INCREDIBLE….I HAD WONDERFUL SOFT SWEET AND BOUNCY BREAD BUNS…..

    Reply
  4. Joyce Piland

    I have been using tangzhong since you first published it. What a wonderful way to make bread. Have used it with the rye bread and whole wheat bread recipes. I just winged it (not having a formula) and found I usually had to add more flour. Will use your new method. After freezing the bread it comes out wonderfully soft and lasts. Thank you for all your caring in the baking world.

    Reply
  5. Elizabeth

    I love the idea of softer bread but wonder if I can use tangzhong for breads that don’t have added fat – e.g. no milk, butter, eggs – and just basic bread ingredients? Will that still result in a soft bread?

    Reply
    1. PJ Hamel, post author

      Elizabeth, the bread will be softer that it would be otherwise; though not as soft as a bread made from richer dough, since fat is one of the chief softening agents. Go ahead and give it a try, see if you like the results — PJH@KAF

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      We asked the author of this post, PJ, what she thought about gluten-free tangzhong. She said, “Gluten0free and whole grains are the subject of my next tangzhong post, but it won’t be for a couple of months… give it a try and see what happens! I suspect it would [work], as it’s all about starch and gluten-free flours are mainly starch; but no guarantees.” If you decide to dive into this topic, Anita, we hope you’ll share your results with us. Happy GF baking! Kye@KAF

    1. The Baker's Hotline

      We’re glad you asked, Eileen, because this is something we’ve been wondering about too. It’s going to be the subject of a future blog post because we suspect that gluten-free grains and starches will act somewhat differently than wheat-based flour. We do think it’ll impart a similar level of tenderness and moistness if used correctly. We don’t have specific ratios to recommend currently, but we hope that if you decide to give it a try, you’ll share your findings with us. We’re intrigued and hopeful! Kye@KAF

  6. Kathie

    So, would this work for the KAF New England Hot Dog Bun recipe? I love the flavor and the shape — but their texture often causes them to break apart at the bottom when adding the hot dog.

    Reply
    1. The Baker's Hotline

      The New England Hot Dog Buns recipe is a perfect contestant for using the tangzhong method. It’s intended to be soft and tender, and the tangzhong will capitalize on these qualities. It might even help them have more structure and prevent them from falling apart more easily. Give it a whirl! You might find you love the results. Happy baking! Kye@KAF

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